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Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa

Mukabana, W.R.; Kannady, K.; Kiama, G.M.; Ijumba, J.N.; Mathenge, E.M.; Kiche, I.; Nkwengulila, G.; Mboera, L.; Mtasiwa, D.; Yamagata, Y.; van Schayk, I.; Knols, B.G.J.; Lindsay, S.W.; de Castro, M.C.; Mshinda, H.; Tanner, M.; Fillinger, U.; Killeen, G.F.

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W.R. Mukabana

K. Kannady

G.M. Kiama

J.N. Ijumba

E.M. Mathenge

I. Kiche

G. Nkwengulila

L. Mboera

D. Mtasiwa

Y. Yamagata

I. van Schayk

B.G.J. Knols

M.C. de Castro

H. Mshinda

M. Tanner

U. Fillinger

G.F. Killeen


Background: Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Methods: Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Results: Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Conclusion: Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community-based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.


Mukabana, W., Kannady, K., Kiama, G., Ijumba, J., Mathenge, E., Kiche, I., …Killeen, G. (2006). Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa. Malaria Journal, 5, Article 9.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 3, 2006
Online Publication Date Feb 3, 2006
Publication Date Feb 3, 2006
Deposit Date May 21, 2012
Publicly Available Date May 29, 2012
Journal Malaria Journal
Publisher BioMed Central
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 5
Article Number 9


Published Journal Article (3 Mb)

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Copyright Statement
© 2006 Mukabana et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. <br /> This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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