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Preliminary studies developing methods for the control of Chrysomya putoria, the African latrine fly, in pit latrines in The Gambia

Lindsay, T.C.; Jawara, M.; D'Alessandro, U.; Pinder, M.; Lindsay, S.W.


M. Jawara

U. D'Alessandro

M. Pinder


Objective To explore ways of controlling Chrysomya putoria, the African latrine fly, in pit latrines. As pit latrines are a major source of these flies, eliminating these important breeding sites is likely to reduce village fly populations, and may reduce the spread of diarrhoeal pathogens. Methods We treated 24 latrines in a Gambian village: six each with (i) pyriproxyfen, an insect juvenile hormone mimic formulated as Sumilarv® 0.5G, a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule, (ii) expanded polystyrene beads (EPB), (iii) local soap or (iv) no treatment as controls. Flies were collected using exit traps placed over the drop holes, weekly for five weeks. In a separate study, we tested whether latrines also function as efficient flytraps using the faecal odours as attractants. We constructed six pit latrines each with a built-in flytrap and tested their catching efficiency compared to six fish-baited box traps positioned 10 m from the latrine. Focus group discussions conducted afterwards assessed the acceptability of the flytrap latrines. Results Numbers of emerging C. putoria were reduced by 96.0% (95% CIs: 94.5–97.2%) 4–5 weeks after treatment with pyriproxyfen; by 64.2% (95% CIs: 51.8–73.5%) after treatment with local soap; by 41.3% (95% CIs = 24.0–54.7%) after treatment with EPB 3–5 weeks after treatment. Flytraps placed on latrines collected C. putoria and were deemed acceptable to local communities. Conclusions Sumilarv 0.5G shows promise as a chemical control agent, whilst odour-baited latrine traps may prove a useful method of non-chemical fly control. Both methods warrant further development to reduce fly production from pit latrines. A combination of interventions may prove effective for the control of latrine flies and the diseases they transmit.


Lindsay, T., Jawara, M., D'Alessandro, U., Pinder, M., & Lindsay, S. (2013). Preliminary studies developing methods for the control of Chrysomya putoria, the African latrine fly, in pit latrines in The Gambia. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 18(2), 159-165.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Feb 1, 2013
Deposit Date Jan 7, 2013
Journal Tropical Medicine and International Health
Print ISSN 1360-2276
Electronic ISSN 1365-3156
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 18
Issue 2
Pages 159-165
Keywords Chrysomya putoria, African latrine fly, Sanitation, Fly control, Pit latrines, Diarrhoeal diseases.