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NuSTAR Reveals Extreme Absorption in z < 0.5 Type 2 Quasars

Lansbury, G.B.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D.M.; Assef, R.J.; Aird, J.; Annuar, A.; Ballantyne, D.R.; Balokovic, M.; Bauer, F.E.; Boggs, S.E.; Brandt, W.N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F.E.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W.W.; Del Moro, A.; Grefenstette, B.W.; Hailey, C.J.; Harrison, F.A.; Hickox, R.C.; Koss, M.; LaMassa, S.M.; Luo, B.; Puccetti, S.; Stern, D.; Treister, E.; Vignali, C.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W.W.

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Authors

G.B. Lansbury

P. Gandhi

R.J. Assef

J. Aird

A. Annuar

D.R. Ballantyne

M. Balokovic

F.E. Bauer

S.E. Boggs

W.N. Brandt

M. Brightman

F.E. Christensen

F. Civano

A. Comastri

W.W. Craig

A. Del Moro

B.W. Grefenstette

C.J. Hailey

F.A. Harrison

R.C. Hickox

M. Koss

S.M. LaMassa

B. Luo

S. Puccetti

D. Stern

E. Treister

C. Vignali

L. Zappacosta

W.W. Zhang



Abstract

The intrinsic column density (NH) distribution of quasars is poorly known. At the high obscuration end of the quasar population and for redshifts z<1, the X-ray spectra can only be reliably characterized using broad-band measurements which extend to energies above 10 keV. Using the hard X-ray observatory NuSTAR, along with archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data, we study the broad-band X-ray spectra of nine optically selected (from the SDSS), candidate Compton-thick (NH > 1.5e24 cm^-2) type 2 quasars (CTQSO2s); five new NuSTAR observations are reported herein, and four have been previously published. The candidate CTQSO2s lie at z<0.5, have observed [OIII] luminosities in the range 8.4 < log (L_[OIII]/L_solar) < 9.6, and show evidence for extreme, Compton-thick absorption when indirect absorption diagnostics are considered. Amongst the nine candidate CTQSO2s, five are detected by NuSTAR in the high energy (8-24 keV) band: two are weakly detected at the ~ 3 sigma confidence level and three are strongly detected with sufficient counts for spectral modeling (>~ 90 net source counts at 8-24 keV). For these NuSTAR-detected sources direct (i.e., X-ray spectral) constraints on the intrinsic AGN properties are feasible, and we measure column densities ~2.5-1600 times higher and intrinsic (unabsorbed) X-ray luminosities ~10-70 times higher than pre-NuSTAR constraints from Chandra and XMM-Newton. Assuming the NuSTAR-detected type 2 quasars are representative of other Compton-thick candidates, we make a correction to the NH distribution for optically selected type 2 quasars as measured by Chandra and XMM-Newton for 39 objects. With this approach, we predict a Compton-thick fraction of f_CT = 36^{+14}_{-12} %, although higher fractions (up to 76%) are possible if indirect absorption diagnostics are assumed to be reliable.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 12, 2015
Online Publication Date Aug 14, 2015
Publication Date Aug 14, 2015
Deposit Date Jul 14, 2015
Publicly Available Date Jul 23, 2015
Journal Astrophysical Journal
Print ISSN 0004-637X
Electronic ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher American Astronomical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 809
Issue 2
Article Number 115
DOI https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637x/809/2/115
Public URL https://durham-repository.worktribe.com/output/1405112
Related Public URLs http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.05120

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Copyright Statement
© 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.







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