Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria vector density from baseline through intervention in a high transmission setting

Alegana, V.A.; Kigozi, S.P.; Nankabirwa, J.; Arinaitwe, E.; Kigozi, R.; Mawejje, H.; Kilama, M.; Ruktanonchai, N.W.; Ruktanonchai, C.W.; Drakeley, C.; Lindsay, S.W.; Greenhouse, B.; Kamya, M.R.; Smith, D.L.; Atkinson, P.M.; Dorsey, G.; Tatem, A.J.

Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria vector density from baseline through intervention in a high transmission setting Thumbnail


V.A. Alegana

S.P. Kigozi

J. Nankabirwa

E. Arinaitwe

R. Kigozi

H. Mawejje

M. Kilama

N.W. Ruktanonchai

C.W. Ruktanonchai

C. Drakeley

B. Greenhouse

M.R. Kamya

D.L. Smith

P.M. Atkinson

G. Dorsey

A.J. Tatem


Background: An increase in effective malaria control since 2000 has contributed to a decline in global malaria morbidity and mortality. Knowing when and how existing interventions could be combined to maximise their impact on malaria vectors can provide valuable information for national malaria control programs in different malaria endemic settings. Here, we assess the effect of indoor residual spraying on malaria vector densities in a high malaria endemic setting in eastern Uganda as part of a cohort study where the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was high. Methods: Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled monthly using CDC light traps in 107 households selected randomly. Information on the use of malaria interventions in households was also gathered and recorded via a questionnaire. A Bayesian spatio-temporal model was then used to estimate mosquito densities adjusting for climatic and ecological variables and interventions. Results: Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato) were most abundant (89.1%; n = 119,008) compared to An. funestus (sensu lato) (10.1%, n = 13,529). Modelling results suggest that the addition of indoor residual spraying (bendiocarb) in an area with high coverage of permethrin-impregnated LLINs (99%) was associated with a major decrease in mosquito vector densities. The impact on An. funestus (s.l.) (Rate Ratio 0.1508; 97.5% CI: 0.0144–0.8495) was twice as great as for An. gambiae (s.l.) (RR 0.5941; 97.5% CI: 0.1432–0.8577). Conclusions: High coverage of active ingredients on walls depressed vector populations in intense malaria transmission settings. Sustained use of combined interventions would have a long-term impact on mosquito densities, limiting infectious biting.


Alegana, V., Kigozi, S., Nankabirwa, J., Arinaitwe, E., Kigozi, R., Mawejje, H., …Tatem, A. (2016). Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria vector density from baseline through intervention in a high transmission setting. Parasites and Vectors, 9(1), Article 637.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 28, 2016
Online Publication Date Dec 12, 2016
Publication Date Dec 12, 2016
Deposit Date Mar 3, 2017
Publicly Available Date Mar 15, 2017
Journal Parasites and Vectors
Publisher BioMed Central
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 9
Issue 1
Article Number 637


Published Journal Article (1.4 Mb)

Publisher Licence URL

Copyright Statement
© The Author(s). 2016 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0<br /> International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and<br /> reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to<br /> the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver<br /> ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

You might also like

Downloadable Citations