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Bird-biting mosquitoes on farms in southern England

Brugman, Victor Albert; Medlock, Jolyon M; Logan, James G; Wilson, Anthony J; Lindsay, Steve W; Fooks, Anthony R; Mertens, Peter PC; Johnson, Nicholas; Carpenter, Simon T

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Victor Albert Brugman

Jolyon M Medlock

James G Logan

Anthony J Wilson

Anthony R Fooks

Peter PC Mertens

Nicholas Johnson

Simon T Carpenter


Mosquitoes that blood-feed on avian hosts are important vectors of many arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). In Europe, these include West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUTV) and Sindbis virus. These are all maintained in enzootic bird-mosquito-bird cycles and are important veterinary and medical threats to the UK. Principally, veterinary concerns lie with the risks to domestic animals, such as the incidental spillover infection of horses with WNV which may lead to serious neurological sequelae. Wildlife may also be affected, with certain wild birds being highly susceptible to infection and death with USUTV, although poultry are less susceptible. To date, UK surveillance for these viruses has not yielded evidence of active virus transmission although serological evidence has been reported.


Brugman, V. A., Medlock, J. M., Logan, J. G., Wilson, A. J., Lindsay, S. W., Fooks, A. R., …Carpenter, S. T. (2018). Bird-biting mosquitoes on farms in southern England. Veterinary Record, 183, Article 474.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 6, 2018
Online Publication Date Aug 11, 2018
Publication Date Aug 11, 2018
Deposit Date Aug 29, 2018
Publicly Available Date Nov 8, 2018
Journal Veterinary Record
Print ISSN 0042-4900
Electronic ISSN 2042-7670
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 183
Article Number 474


Published Journal Article (779 Kb)

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Copyright Statement
© British Veterinary Association 2018. Re-use permitted under CC BY. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See:

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