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Risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Burkina Faso: a community-based cross-sectional survey

Yaro, Jean Baptiste; Ouedraogo, Alphonse; Diarra, Amidou; Sombié, Salif; Ouedraogo, Z. Amidou; Nébié, Issa; Drakeley, Chris; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; Tiono, Alfred B.; Lindsay, Steven W.; Wilson, Anne L.

Risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Burkina Faso: a community-based cross-sectional survey Thumbnail


Jean Baptiste Yaro

Alphonse Ouedraogo

Amidou Diarra

Salif Sombié

Z. Amidou Ouedraogo

Issa Nébié

Chris Drakeley

Sodiomon B. Sirima

Alfred B. Tiono

Anne L. Wilson


Background: Malaria in pregnancy remains a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying risk factors for malaria in pregnancy could assist in developing interventions to reduce the risk of malaria in Burkina Faso and other countries in the region. Methods: Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out to measure Plasmodium falciparum infection using microscopy in pregnant women in Saponé Health District, central Burkina Faso. Data were collected on individual, household and environmental variables and their association with P. falciparum infection assessed using multivariable analysis. Results: A total of 356 pregnant women were enrolled in the surveys, 174 during the dry season and 182 during the wet season. The mean number of doses of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp-SP) was 0.4 doses during the first trimester, 1.1 doses at the second and 2.3 doses at the third. Overall prevalence of P. falciparum infection by microscopy was 15.7%; 17.8% in the dry season and 13.7% in the wet season. 88.2% of pregnant women reported sleeping under an insecticide-treated net (ITN) on the previous night. The odds of P. falciparum infection was 65% lower in women who reported using an ITN compared to those that did not use an ITN (Odds ratio, OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.14–0.86, p = 0.02). IPTp-SP was also associated with reduced P. falciparum infection, with each additional dose of IPTp-SP reducing the odds of infection by 44% (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.39–0.79, p = 0.001). Literate women had a 2.54 times higher odds of P. falciparum infection compared to illiterate women (95% CI 1.31–4.91, p = 0.006). Conclusions: The prevalence of P. falciparum infection among pregnant women remains high in Burkina Faso, although use of IPTp-SP and ITNs were found to reduce the odds of infection. Despite this, compliance with IPTp-SP remains far from that recommended by the National Malaria Control Programme and World Health Organization. Behaviour change communication should be strengthened to encourage compliance with protective malaria control tools during pregnancy.


Yaro, J. B., Ouedraogo, A., Diarra, A., Sombié, S., Ouedraogo, Z. A., Nébié, I., …Wilson, A. L. (2021). Risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Burkina Faso: a community-based cross-sectional survey. Malaria Journal, 20(1), Article 362.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 26, 2021
Online Publication Date Sep 6, 2021
Publication Date 2021
Deposit Date Nov 9, 2021
Publicly Available Date Jan 19, 2022
Journal Malaria Journal
Publisher BioMed Central
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 20
Issue 1
Article Number 362


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