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Equivalence in International Business Research: A Three-step approach

Solarino, A.M.; Buckley, P.

Equivalence in International Business Research: A Three-step approach Thumbnail


P. Buckley


A primary research area within the field of international business (IB) is to establish the extent to which concepts, theories, and findings identified in one country are applicable to other contexts and which are unique and cannot be found in other contexts. Researchers in IB acknowledge the importance of the context in their studies, but the practice of assessing equivalence (or invariance) is not widely diffused within the community. We first discuss the components of equivalence (construct, method, and item equivalence), and we offer a three-step approach to address equivalence in the writing and revision of a paper. We aim to help editors, reviewers, and researchers produce more reliable research and navigate the tension between generalizable relationships and context-specific ones, both theoretically and empirically, before performing analysis and hypothesis testing. We then apply equivalence to the construct of firm economic performance as a case study, but the same logic can be applied to other constructs as well.


Solarino, A., & Buckley, P. (2023). Equivalence in International Business Research: A Three-step approach. Journal of International Business Studies, 54(3), 550-567.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 15, 2022
Online Publication Date Oct 20, 2022
Publication Date 2023-04
Deposit Date Oct 17, 2022
Publicly Available Date May 30, 2023
Journal Journal of International Business Studies
Print ISSN 0047-2506
Publisher Palgrave Macmillan
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 54
Issue 3
Pages 550-567
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Published Journal Article (319 Kb)

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