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Self-Talk: An Interdisciplinary Review and Transdisciplinary Model

Latinjak, Alexander T.; Morin, Alain; Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hardy, James; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Kendall, Philip C.; Neck, Christopher; Oliver, Emily J.; Puchalska-Wasyl, Małgorzata M.; Tovares, Alla V.; Winsler, Adam

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Alexander T. Latinjak

Alain Morin

Thomas M. Brinthaupt

James Hardy

Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis

Philip C. Kendall

Christopher Neck

Małgorzata M. Puchalska-Wasyl

Alla V. Tovares

Adam Winsler


The present work synthesises the self-talk literature and constructs a transdisciplinary self-talk model to guide future research across all academic disciplines that engage with self-talk. A comprehensive research review was conducted, including 559 self-talk articles published between 1978 and 2020. These articles were divided into 6 research categories: (a) inner dialogue, (b) mixed spontaneous and goal-directed organic self-talk, (c) goal-directed self-talk, (d) spontaneous self-talk, (e) educational self-talk interventions, and (f) strategic self-talk interventions. Following this, critical details were extracted from a subsample of 100 articles to create an interdisciplinary synthesis of the self-talk literature. Based on the synthesis, a self-talk model was created that places spontaneous and goal-directed organic self-talk as well as educational and strategic self-talk interventions in relation to variables within their nomological network, including external factors (e.g. task difficulty), descriptive states and traits (e.g. emotions), behaviour and performance, metacognition, and psychological skills (e.g. concentration).


Latinjak, A. T., Morin, A., Brinthaupt, T. M., Hardy, J., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Kendall, P. C., …Winsler, A. (2023). Self-Talk: An Interdisciplinary Review and Transdisciplinary Model. Review of General Psychology, 27(4), 355-386.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 6, 2023
Online Publication Date Jun 6, 2023
Publication Date 2023-12
Deposit Date Feb 13, 2024
Publicly Available Date Feb 13, 2024
Journal Review of General Psychology
Print ISSN 1089-2680
Electronic ISSN 1939-1552
Publisher SAGE Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 27
Issue 4
Pages 355-386
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Published Journal Article (1.1 Mb)


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Copyright Statement
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page (

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