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Slow-blue nuclear hypervariables in PanSTARRS-1

Lawrence, A.; Bruce, A.G.; MacLeod, C.; Gezari, S.; Elvis, M.; Ward, M.; Smartt, S.J.; Smith, K.W.; Wright, D.; Fraser, M.; Marshall, P.; Kaiser, N.; Burgett, W.; Magnier, E.; Tonry, J.; Chambers, K.; Wainscoat, R.; Waters, C.; Price, P.; Metcalfe, N.; Valenti, S.; Kotak, R.; Mead, A.; Inserra, C.; Chen, T.W.; Soderberg, A.

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A. Lawrence

A.G. Bruce

C. MacLeod

S. Gezari

M. Elvis

M. Ward

S.J. Smartt

K.W. Smith

D. Wright

M. Fraser

P. Marshall

N. Kaiser

W. Burgett

E. Magnier

J. Tonry

K. Chambers

R. Wainscoat

C. Waters

P. Price

S. Valenti

R. Kotak

A. Mead

C. Inserra

T.W. Chen

A. Soderberg


We discuss 76 large amplitude transients (Δm > 1.5) occurring in the nuclei of galaxies, nearly all with no previously known active galactic nucleus (AGN). They have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3π survey, by comparison with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry a decade earlier, and then monitored with the Liverpool Telescope, and studied spectroscopically with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT). Based on colours, light-curve shape, and spectra, these transients fall into four groups. A few are misclassified stars or objects of unknown type. Some are red/fast transients and are known or likely nuclear supernovae. A few are either radio sources or erratic variables and so likely blazars. However the majority (∼66 per cent) are blue and evolve slowly, on a time-scale of years. Spectroscopy shows them to be AGN at z ∼ 0.3 − 1.4, which must have brightened since the SDSS photometry by around an order of magnitude. It is likely that these objects were in fact AGN a decade ago, but too weak to be recognized by SDSS; they could then be classed as ‘hypervariable’ AGN. By searching the SDSS Stripe 82 quasar database, we find 15 similar objects. We discuss several possible explanations for these slow-blue hypervariables – (i) unusually luminous tidal disruption events; (ii) extinction events; (iii) changes in accretion state; and (iv) large amplitude microlensing by stars in foreground galaxies. A mixture of explanations (iii) and (iv) seems most likely. Both hold promise of considerable new insight into the AGN phenomenon.


Lawrence, A., Bruce, A., MacLeod, C., Gezari, S., Elvis, M., Ward, M., …Soderberg, A. (2016). Slow-blue nuclear hypervariables in PanSTARRS-1. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 463(1), 296-331.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 4, 2016
Online Publication Date Aug 9, 2016
Publication Date Nov 21, 2016
Deposit Date Sep 28, 2016
Publicly Available Date Oct 6, 2016
Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Print ISSN 0035-8711
Electronic ISSN 1365-2966
Publisher Royal Astronomical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 463
Issue 1
Pages 296-331


Published Journal Article (5.8 Mb)

Copyright Statement
This article has been published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ©: 2016 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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