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An updated Type II supernova Hubble diagram

Gall, E.E.E.; Kotak, R.; Leibundgut, B.; Taubenberger, S.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kromer, M.; Burgett, W.S.; Chambers, K.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M.E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.P.; Magnier, E.A.; Metcalfe, N.; Smith, K.; Tonry, J.L.; Wainscoat, R.J.; Waters, C.

An updated Type II supernova Hubble diagram Thumbnail


E.E.E. Gall

R. Kotak

B. Leibundgut

S. Taubenberger

W. Hillebrandt

M. Kromer

W.S. Burgett

K. Chambers

H. Flewelling

M.E. Huber

N. Kaiser

R.P. Kudritzki

E.A. Magnier

K. Smith

J.L. Tonry

R.J. Wainscoat

C. Waters


We present photometry and spectroscopy of nine Type II-P/L supernovae (SNe) with redshifts in the 0.045 ≲ z ≲ 0.335 range, with a view to re-examining their utility as distance indicators. Specifically, we apply the expanding photosphere method (EPM) and the standardized candle method (SCM) to each target, and find that both methods yield distances that are in reasonable agreement with each other. The current record-holder for the highest-redshift spectroscopically confirmed supernova (SN) II-P is PS1-13bni (z = 0.335−0.012+0.009), and illustrates the promise of Type II SNe as cosmological tools. We updated existing EPM and SCM Hubble diagrams by adding our sample to those previously published. Within the context of Type II SN distance measuring techniques, we investigated two related questions. First, we explored the possibility of utilising spectral lines other than the traditionally used Fe iiλ5169 to infer the photospheric velocity of SN ejecta. Using local well-observed objects, we derive an epoch-dependent relation between the strong Balmer line and Fe iiλ5169 velocities that is applicable 30 to 40 days post-explosion. Motivated in part by the continuum of key observables such as rise time and decline rates exhibited from II-P to II-L SNe, we assessed the possibility of using Hubble-flow Type II-L SNe as distance indicators. These yield similar distances as the Type II-P SNe. Although these initial results are encouraging, a significantly larger sample of SNe II-L would be required to draw definitive conclusions.


Gall, E., Kotak, R., Leibundgut, B., Taubenberger, S., Hillebrandt, W., Kromer, M., …Waters, C. (2017). An updated Type II supernova Hubble diagram. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 611, Article A25.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 9, 2017
Online Publication Date Mar 20, 2017
Publication Date Mar 20, 2017
Deposit Date Apr 5, 2018
Publicly Available Date Apr 9, 2018
Journal Astronomy and astrophysics.
Print ISSN 0004-6361
Electronic ISSN 1432-0746
Publisher EDP Sciences
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 611
Article Number A25


Published Journal Article (2.6 Mb)

Copyright Statement
Reproduced with permission from Astronomy & Astrophysics, © ESO 2018

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