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Compositional turnover and variation in Eemian pollen sequences in Europe

Felde, Vivian A.; Flantua, Suzette G.A.; Jenks, Cathy R.; Benito, Blas M.; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Kuneš, Petr; Magri, Donatella; Nalepka, Dorota; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; ter Braak, Cajo J.F.; Allen, Judy R.M.; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Helmens, Karin F.; Huntley, Brian; Kondratienė, Ona; Kalniņa, Laimdota; Kupryjanowicz, Mirosława; Malkiewicz, Małgorzata; Milner, Alice M.; Nita, Małgorzata; Noryśkiewicz, Bożena; Pidek, Irena A.; Reille, Maurice; Salonen, J. Sakari; Šeirienė, Vaida; Winter, Hanna; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.; Birks, H. John B.

Compositional turnover and variation in Eemian pollen sequences in Europe Thumbnail


Vivian A. Felde

Suzette G.A. Flantua

Cathy R. Jenks

Blas M. Benito

Jacques-Louis de Beaulieu

Petr Kuneš

Donatella Magri

Dorota Nalepka

Bjørg Risebrobakken

Cajo J.F. ter Braak

Judy R.M. Allen

Wojciech Granoszewski

Karin F. Helmens

Brian Huntley

Ona Kondratienė

Laimdota Kalniņa

Mirosława Kupryjanowicz

Małgorzata Malkiewicz

Alice M. Milner

Małgorzata Nita

Bożena Noryśkiewicz

Irena A. Pidek

Maurice Reille

J. Sakari Salonen

Vaida Šeirienė

Hanna Winter

Polychronis C. Tzedakis

H. John B. Birks


The Eemian interglacial represents a natural experiment on how past vegetation with negligible human impact responded to amplified temperature changes compared to the Holocene. Here, we assemble 47 carefully selected Eemian pollen sequences from Europe to explore geographical patterns of (1) total compositional turnover and total variation for each sequence and (2) stratigraphical turnover between samples within each sequence using detrended canonical correspondence analysis, multivariate regression trees, and principal curves. Our synthesis shows that turnover and variation are highest in central Europe (47–55°N), low in southern Europe (south of 45°N), and lowest in the north (above 60°N). These results provide a basis for developing hypotheses about causes of vegetation change during the Eemian and their possible drivers.


Felde, V. A., Flantua, S. G., Jenks, C. R., Benito, B. M., de Beaulieu, J., Kuneš, P., …Birks, H. J. B. (2020). Compositional turnover and variation in Eemian pollen sequences in Europe. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 29(1), 101-109.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 22, 2019
Online Publication Date Apr 1, 2019
Publication Date Jan 31, 2020
Deposit Date Jun 11, 2019
Publicly Available Date Apr 1, 2020
Journal Vegetation History and Archaeobotany
Print ISSN 0939-6314
Electronic ISSN 1617-6278
Publisher Springer
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 29
Issue 1
Pages 101-109


Accepted Journal Article (2.5 Mb)

Copyright Statement
This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. The final authenticated version is available online at:

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