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Off the Baryonic Tully–Fisher Relation: A Population of Baryon-dominated Ultra-diffuse Galaxies

Mancera Piña, Pavel E.; Fraternali, Filippo; Adams, Elizabeth A.K.; Marasco, Antonino; Oosterloo, Tom; Oman, Kyle A.; Leisman, Lukas; di Teodoro, Enrico M.; Posti, Lorenzo; Battipaglia, Michael; Cannon, John M.; Gault, Lexi; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; McAllan, Elizabeth; Pagel, Hannah J.; Reiter, Kameron; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Smith, Nicholas J.

Off the Baryonic Tully–Fisher Relation: A Population of Baryon-dominated Ultra-diffuse Galaxies Thumbnail


Pavel E. Mancera Piña

Filippo Fraternali

Elizabeth A.K. Adams

Antonino Marasco

Tom Oosterloo

Lukas Leisman

Enrico M. di Teodoro

Lorenzo Posti

Michael Battipaglia

John M. Cannon

Lexi Gault

Martha P. Haynes

Steven Janowiecki

Elizabeth McAllan

Hannah J. Pagel

Kameron Reiter

Katherine L. Rhode

John J. Salzer

Nicholas J. Smith


We study the gas kinematics traced by the 21 cm emission of a sample of six H i-rich low surface brightness galaxies classified as ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). Using the 3D kinematic modeling code 3DBarolo we derive robust circular velocities, revealing a startling feature: H i-rich UDGs are clear outliers from the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation, with circular velocities much lower than galaxies with similar baryonic mass. Notably, the baryon fraction of our UDG sample is consistent with the cosmological value: these UDGs are compatible with having no "missing baryons" within their virial radii. Moreover, the gravitational potential provided by the baryons is sufficient to account for the amplitude of the rotation curve out to the outermost measured point, contrary to other galaxies with similar circular velocities. We speculate that any formation scenario for these objects will require very inefficient feedback and a broad diversity in their inner dark matter content.


Mancera Piña, P. E., Fraternali, F., Adams, E. A., Marasco, A., Oosterloo, T., Oman, K. A., …Smith, N. J. (2019). Off the Baryonic Tully–Fisher Relation: A Population of Baryon-dominated Ultra-diffuse Galaxies. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 883(2), Article L33.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 1, 2019
Online Publication Date Sep 25, 2019
Publication Date Oct 1, 2019
Deposit Date Oct 27, 2021
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2021
Journal Astrophysical Journal Letters
Print ISSN 2041-8205
Electronic ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher American Astronomical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 883
Issue 2
Article Number L33
Related Public URLs


Accepted Journal Article (1.3 Mb)

Copyright Statement
This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article published in Astrophysical Journal Letters. IOP Publishing Ltd is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version<br /> derived from it. The Version of Record is available online at

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