Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

The MillenniumTNG Project: the hydrodynamical full physics simulation and a first look at its galaxy clusters

Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker; Coles, Jonathan P; Guillet, Thomas; Pfrommer, Christoph; Bose, Sownak; Barrera, Monica; Delgado, Ana Maria; Ferlito, Fulvio; Frenk, Carlos; Hadzhiyska, Boryana; Hernández-Aguayo, César; Hernquist, Lars; Kannan, Rahul; White, Simon D M

The MillenniumTNG Project: the hydrodynamical full physics simulation and a first look at its galaxy clusters Thumbnail


Rüdiger Pakmor

Volker Springel

Jonathan P Coles

Thomas Guillet

Christoph Pfrommer

Sownak Bose

Monica Barrera

Ana Maria Delgado

Fulvio Ferlito

Boryana Hadzhiyska

César Hernández-Aguayo

Lars Hernquist

Rahul Kannan

Simon D M White


Cosmologicalsimulations are an important theoretical pillar for understanding non-linearstructure formation in our Universe and for relating it to observations on large scales. In several papers, we introduce our MillenniumTNG (MTNG) project that provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution, large-volume simulations of cosmic structure formation aiming to better understand physical processes on large scales and to help interpret upcoming large-scale galaxy surveys. We here focus on the full physics box MTNG740 that computes a volume of 740 Mpc3 with a baryonic mass resolution of 3.1 × 107 M using AREPO with 80.6 billion cells and the IllustrisTNG galaxy formation model. We verify that the galaxy properties produced by MTNG740 are consistent with the TNG simulations, including more recent observations. We focus on galaxy clusters and analyse clusterscaling relations and radial profiles. We show that both are broadly consistent with various observational constraints. We demonstrate that the SZ-signal on a deep light-cone is consistent with Planck limits. Finally, we compare MTNG740 clusters with galaxy clusters found in Planck and the SDSS-8 RedMaPPer richness catalogue in observational space, finding very good agreement as well. However, simultaneously matching cluster masses, richness, and Compton-y requires us to assume that the SZ mass estimates for Planck clusters are underestimated by 0.2 dex on average. Due to its unprecedented volume for a high-resolution hydrodynamical calculation, the MTNG740 simulation offers rich possibilities to study baryons in galaxies, galaxy clusters, and in large-scale structure, and in particular their impact on upcoming large cosmological surveys.


Pakmor, R., Springel, V., Coles, J. P., Guillet, T., Pfrommer, C., Bose, S., …White, S. D. M. (2023). The MillenniumTNG Project: the hydrodynamical full physics simulation and a first look at its galaxy clusters. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 524(2), 2539-2555.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 6, 2022
Online Publication Date Jul 20, 2023
Publication Date 2023-09
Deposit Date Dec 14, 2023
Publicly Available Date Dec 14, 2023
Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Print ISSN 0035-8711
Electronic ISSN 1365-2966
Publisher Royal Astronomical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 524
Issue 2
Pages 2539-2555
Public URL


You might also like

Downloadable Citations