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Renewable Energy Consumption

Woolley, Olivia

Renewable Energy Consumption Thumbnail



E. Woerdman

M.M. Roggenkamp

M. Holwerda


• Promoting the consumption of renewable energy is one of the key means to reduce carbon emissions from electricity production, heating and transportation, while it also improves energy security and contributes to economic growth; • Repealing the early Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC that aimed to promote renewable sources, Directive 2009/28/EC (2009 RES Directive) established a legal framework for increasing the consumption of energy from renewable sources in the EU to 20 per cent of overall energy consumption by 2020. At that time, Member States were given legally binding national targets for achieving specified levels of renewable energy growth; • The current Directive EU/2018/2001 (2018 RES Directive) requires states to act in solidarity to achieve collectively a target of 32% renewable energy in energy consumption by 2030, but replaces binding national targets with detailed governance arrangements for scrutinising individual contributions of Member States to the Union target; • The 2018 RES Directive places greater emphasis on cost-effectiveness than the 2009 RES Directive, for instance by requiring support schemes for renewable electricity to give producers market exposure in most circumstances. It also encourages Member States to seek out lower cost options for increasing renewable energy consumption by allowing them to collaborate through cooperation mechanisms; • The 2019 Electricity Directive (2019/944) and the 2019 Electricity Regulation require Member States and sectoral actors to enable renewable energy integration in networks and markets by reforming rules on their operation and development; • The 2018 RES Directive requires Member States to promote the use of renewables in energy consumed for transport, whilst preventing this and other sources of demand for bioenergy from giving rise to unsustainable fuel production practices; • Member States employ support schemes to encourage investment in RES production capacity, but legal questions arise over their compatibility with TFEU provisions concerning the free movement of goods and state aid.

Publication Date 2021
Deposit Date May 6, 2021
Publicly Available Date May 6, 2021
Publisher Edward Elgar Publishing
Pages 98-129
Edition 2nd ed.
Book Title Essential EU Climate Law: 2nd edition
Chapter Number 6
Public URL
Publisher URL


Accepted Book Chapter (522 Kb)

Copyright Statement
This is a draft chapter/article. The final version will be available in Essential EU Climate and Energy Law (2nd ed.) edited by E. Woerdman, M. M. Roggenkamp and M. Holwerda, forthcoming 2021, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.
The material cannot be used for any other purpose without further permission of the publisher, and is for private use only.

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