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Necessary condition analysis in marketing research

Dul, J.; Hauff, S.; Tóth, Z.

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J. Dul

S. Hauff


R. Nunkoo

V. Teeroovengadum

C.M. Ringle.


Necessary condition analysis (NCA) is a new approach and analysis technique for identifying necessary conditions. Necessary conditions represent constraints, bottlenecks, or critical factors that cannot be compensated by other factors. This logic differs from additive logic implied in conventional methods (e.g. regression, or structural equation modelling) where contributing factors add up to produce an outcome. In contrast to these methods, NCA does not try to predict the presence of an outcome, but the absence of an outcome instead. Therewith, NCA provides a different view on theory, methodology and practical relevance. We introduce NCA and discuss its applications into marketing management. For example, we highlight how NCA can help the research on developing marketing strategies, planning, advertising, and sales by exploring conditions without which these outcomes cannot occur. In particular, we will elaborate on the underlying logic of necessary conditions, describe the basics of NCA and show how it can be applied to identify necessary conditions of relevant marketing phenomena.


Dul, J., Hauff, S., & Tóth, Z. (2021). Necessary condition analysis in marketing research. In R. Nunkoo, V. Teeroovengadum, & C. Ringle. (Eds.), Handbook of Research Methods for Marketing Management (51-72). Elgar Publishing.

Online Publication Date Oct 22, 2021
Publication Date 2021
Deposit Date Nov 24, 2021
Publicly Available Date Apr 22, 2022
Pages 51-72
Series Title Handbooks of Research Methods in Management
Book Title Handbook of Research Methods for Marketing Management
Chapter Number 2
ISBN 9781788976947
Public URL


Accepted Book Chapter (974 Kb)

Copyright Statement
This is a draft chapter/article. The final version is available in Handbook of Research Methods for Marketing Management edited by Robin Nunkoo, Viraiyan Teeroovengadum and Christian M. Ringle, published in 2021, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd<br /><br /> <br /> The material cannot be used for any other purpose without further permission of the publisher, and is for private use only.

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