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2,5-di(aryleneethynyl)pyrazine derivatives: synthesis, structural and optoelectronic properties, and light-emitting device

Zhao, L.; Perepichka, I.F.; Turksoy, F.; Batsanov, A.S.; Beeby, A.; Findlay, K.S.; Bryce, M.R.


L. Zhao

I.F. Perepichka

F. Turksoy

A.S. Batsanov

K.S. Findlay


A series of 2,5-di(aryleneethynyl) pyrazine derivatives has been synthesised in 23-41% yields by two-fold reaction of 2,5-dibromo-3,6-dimethylpyrazine 3 with ethynylarenes (arene=phenyl, 2-pyridyl, 4-ethylphenyl, 4-chlorophenyl, 4-biphenyl) under standard Sonogashira conditions [CuI, Pd(PPh3)(2)C(l)2, NEt3, THF]. Compound 3 has been converted into 2,5-diethynyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine, which reacts with 2-iodothiophene to yield 2,5-bis(thien-2-ylethynyl)-3,6-dimethylpyrazine. In the X-ray crystal structure of 2,5-di(phenylethynyl)-3,6-dimethylpyrazine 4 the two phenyl rings are parallel and the pyrazine ring is inclined to their planes by 14.2degrees. Quantum chemical calculations establish that the HOMO-LUMO gap for 4 (3.56 eV) is lower than that of di(phenylethynyl) benzene 12 (3.72 eV). The nitrogen atoms of 4 serve to localise the HOMO on the central ring's carbon atoms, resulting in a quinoidal-type population, in contrast to 12. Cyclic voltammetric studies establish that 4 undergoes a reduction to the radical anion at ca. -1.9 V (vs. Ag/Ag+ in MeCN), which is almost reversible at high scan rates (500 mV s(-1)). The UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence profiles of 4 in cyclohexane are similar to those of 12; the emission for 4 (lambda(max) 379 and 395 nm) is red-shifted compared to 12. Single-layer OLEDs using MEH-PPV as the emissive polymer show significantly enhanced external quantum efficiencies (up to 0.07%) when 20% by weight of 2,5-di(biphenyl-4-ethynyl)-3,6-dimethylpyrazine 8 is added as a dopant: this is ascribed to the enhanced electron-transporting properties of the pyrazine system.


Zhao, L., Perepichka, I., Turksoy, F., Batsanov, A., Beeby, A., Findlay, K., & Bryce, M. (2004). 2,5-di(aryleneethynyl)pyrazine derivatives: synthesis, structural and optoelectronic properties, and light-emitting device. New Journal of Chemistry, 28(8), 912-918

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2004
Journal New Journal of Chemistry
Print ISSN 1144-0546
Publisher Royal Society of Chemistry
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 28
Issue 8
Pages 912-918