A 1:30,000 scale map of the snout and proglacial landscape of the surging Icelandic glacier Tungnaarjokull, based upon aerial photography from 1995, immediately after a surge, allows an assessment of the spatial variability in landform-sediment imprints of catastrophic glacier advance across upland bedrock ridges. The ice-margin parallel alignment of the bedrock ridges locally strongly directs proglacial meltwater drainage and initiates strong compression in the ice during surging, resulting in the development of prominent ice-cored hummocky moraine composed of glacifluvial sediment. Diagnostic surge landforms elsewhere on the foreland include thrust block and push moraines, overridden ice-cored thrust block moraines, crevasse squeeze ridges, long flutings, hummocky moraine and ice-cored, pitted outwash.
Evans, D., Twigg, D., Rea, B., & Orton, C. (2009). Surging glacier landsystem of Tungnaárjökull, Iceland. Journal of Maps, 2009, 134-151. https://doi.org/10.4113/jom.2009.1064