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A major ice drainage pathway of the last British–Irish Ice Sheet: the Tyne Gap, northern England

Livingstone, S.J.; Ó Cofaigh, C.; Evans, D.J.A.


S.J. Livingstone

C. Ó Cofaigh


The Tyne Gap is a wide pass, situated between the Scottish Southern Uplands and the English Pennines that connects western and eastern England. It was a major ice flow drainage pathway of the last British–Irish Ice Sheet. This study presents new glacial geomorphological and sedimentological data from the Tyne Gap region that has allowed detailed reconstructions of palaeo-ice flow dynamics during the Late Devensian (Marine Isotope Stage 2). Mapped lineations reveal a complex palimpsest pattern which shows that ice flow was subject to multiple switches in direction. These are summarised into three major ice flow phases. Stage I was characterised by convergent Lake District and Scottish ice that flowed east through the Tyne Gap, as a topographically controlled ice stream. This ice stream was identified from glacial geomorphological evidence in the form of convergent bedforms, streamlined subglacial bedforms and evidence for deformable bed conditions; stage II involved northerly migration of the Solway Firth ice divide back into the Southern Uplands, causing the easterly flow of ice to be weakened, and resulting in southeasterly flow of ice down the North Tyne Valley; and stage III was characterised by strong drawdown of ice into the Irish Sea Ice Basin, thus starving the Tyne Gap of ice and causing progressive ice sheet retreat westwards back across the watershed, prior to ice stagnation.


Livingstone, S., Ó Cofaigh, C., & Evans, D. (2010). A major ice drainage pathway of the last British–Irish Ice Sheet: the Tyne Gap, northern England. Journal of Quaternary Science, 25(3), 354-370.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Mar 1, 2010
Deposit Date May 10, 2010
Journal Journal of Quaternary Science
Print ISSN 0267-8179
Electronic ISSN 1099-1417
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 25
Issue 3
Pages 354-370
Publisher URL