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Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

Riby, DM; Doherty-Sneddon, G; Whittle, L

Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development Thumbnail


G Doherty-Sneddon

L Whittle


Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze it interferes with task completion. In this novel study we quantify face interference for the first time in Williams syndrome (WS) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). These disorders of development impact on cognition and social attention, but how do faces interfere with cognitive processing? Individuals developing typically as well as those with ASD (n = 19) and WS (n = 16) were recorded during a question and answer session that involved mathematics questions. In phase 1 gaze behaviour was not manipulated, but in phase 2 participants were required to maintain eye contact with the experimenter at all times. Looking at faces decreased task accuracy for individuals who were developing typically. Critically, the same pattern was seen in WS and ASD, whereby task performance decreased when participants were required to hold face gaze. The results show that looking at faces interferes with task performance in all groups. This finding requires the caveat that individuals with WS and ASD found it harder than individuals who were developing typically to maintain eye contact throughout the interaction. Individuals with ASD struggled to hold eye contact at all points of the interaction while those with WS found it especially difficult when thinking.


Riby, D., Doherty-Sneddon, G., & Whittle, L. (2012). Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development. Developmental Science, 15(2), 281-291.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Mar 1, 2012
Deposit Date Jul 2, 2013
Publicly Available Date Feb 18, 2015
Journal Developmental Science
Print ISSN 1363-755X
Electronic ISSN 1467-7687
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 15
Issue 2
Pages 281-291


Accepted Journal Article (290 Kb)

Copyright Statement
This is the accepted version of the following article: Riby, D. M., Doherty-Sneddon, G. and Whittle, L. (2012), Face-to-face interference in typical and atypical development. Developmental Science, 15 (2): 281-291, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance With Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving.

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