The flow of droplets of bio-pesticide, liquid laden with entomapathogenic nematodes (EPNs), over foliage approximated as a planar substrate is investigated theoretically via a simple analytical model and computationally by solving a subset of the Navier-Stokes equations arising from application of the long-wave approximation. That the droplets of interest can be represented as a homogeneous liquid is established via complementary experiments revealing the presence of EPNs to have negligible influence on bio-pesticide droplet spray distribution predeposition. Both approaches are used to study key issues affecting the migration of droplets over substrates relevant to pesticide deposition processes, including the effect (i) of droplet size and flow inertia on droplet morphology and coverage and (ii) of adaxial (above the leaf) or abaxial (under the leaf) flow orientations. The computational results obtained when inertia is accounted for are generally found to compare well with those given by the simple analytical model − a droplet's velocity relaxes to its terminal value very quickly, at which point gravitational, viscous, and hysteresis forces are in balance; substrate orientation is found to have only a minor influence on the extent of droplet migration.
Veremieiev, S., Brown, A., Gaskell, P., Glass, C., Kapur, N., & Thompson, H. (2014). Modelling the flow of droplets of bio-pesticide on foliage. Interfacial phenomena and heat transfer, 2(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1615/interfacphenomheattransfer.2014010162