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Auditory verbal hallucinations in persons with and without a need for care

Johns, L.C.; Kompus, K.; Connell, M.; Humpston, C.; Lincoln, T.M.; Longden, E.; Preti, A.; Alderson-Day, B.; Badcock, J.C.; Cella, M.; Fernyhough, C.; McCarthy-Jones, S.; Peters, E.; Raballo, A.; Scott, J.; Siddi, S.; Sommer, I.; Larøi, F.

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L.C. Johns

K. Kompus

M. Connell

C. Humpston

T.M. Lincoln

E. Longden

A. Preti

J.C. Badcock

M. Cella

S. McCarthy-Jones

E. Peters

A. Raballo

J. Scott

S. Siddi

I. Sommer

F. Larøi


Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are complex experiences that occur in the context of various clinical disorders. AVH also occur in individuals from the general population who have no identifiable psychiatric or neurological diagnoses. This article reviews research on AVH in nonclinical individuals and provides a cross-disciplinary view of the clinical relevance of these experiences in defining the risk of mental illness and need for care. Prevalence rates of AVH vary according to measurement tool and indicate a continuum of experience in the general population. Cross-sectional comparisons of individuals with AVH with and without need for care reveal similarities in phenomenology and some underlying mechanisms but also highlight key differences in emotional valence of AVH, appraisals, and behavioral response. Longitudinal studies suggest that AVH are an antecedent of clinical disorders when combined with negative emotional states, specific cognitive difficulties and poor coping, plus family history of psychosis, and environmental exposures such as childhood adversity. However, their predictive value for specific psychiatric disorders is not entirely clear. The theoretical and clinical implications of the reviewed findings are discussed, together with directions for future research.


Johns, L., Kompus, K., Connell, M., Humpston, C., Lincoln, T., Longden, E., …Larøi, F. (2014). Auditory verbal hallucinations in persons with and without a need for care. Schizophrenia Bulletin: The Journal of Psychoses and Related Disorders, 40(Suppl 4), S255-S264.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 14, 2014
Online Publication Date Jun 13, 2014
Publication Date Jul 1, 2014
Deposit Date Jun 9, 2014
Publicly Available Date Dec 9, 2014
Journal Schizophrenia Bulletin
Print ISSN 0586-7614
Electronic ISSN 1745-1701
Publisher Oxford University Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 40
Issue Suppl 4
Pages S255-S264
Keywords Nonclinical, Need for care, Psychosis, Prevalence.


Published Journal Article (1.2 Mb)

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Copyright Statement
© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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