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Automated measurement of resolution acuity in infants using remote eye-tracking

Jones, P.R.; Kalwarowsky, K.; Atkinson, J.; Braddick, O.J.; Nardini, M.


P.R. Jones

K. Kalwarowsky

J. Atkinson

O.J. Braddick


Purpose. To validate a novel, automated test of infant resolution acuity based on remote eye-tracking. Methods. Infants aged 2 to 12 months were tested binocularly using a new adaptive computerized test of infant vision using eye tracking (ACTIVE), and Keeler infant acuity cards (KIAC). The ACTIVE test ran automatically, using remote eye-tracking to assess whether the infant fixated a black-and-white grating of variable spatial frequency. Test-retest reliability was assessed by performing each test twice. Accuracy was assessed by comparing acuity measures across tests and with established age-norms, and by comparing low-contrast acuity estimates in adults with data reported previously. Results. All infants completed the ACTIVE test at least once. Median test duration was 101 seconds. Measured visual acuity increased with age (P < 0.001), and 90% of mean acuity estimates were within previously published 90% tolerance limits (based on acuity-card age norms). Acuity estimates were also correlated, within-subjects, with results from the KIAC (P = 0.004). In terms of reliability, 86% of acuity estimates deviated by ≤1 octave, with no significant difference in test-retest reliability between the ACTIVE and KIAC procedures (P = 0.461). In adults, acuity estimates from the ACTIVE test did not differ significantly from values reported by previous authors (P > 0.183). Conclusions. An adaptive computerized test of infant vision using eye-tracking provides a rapid, automated measure of resolution acuity in preverbal infants. The ACTIVE performed comparably to the current clinical gold standard (acuity cards) in terms of testability, reliability, and accuracy, and its principles can be extended to measure other visual functions.


Jones, P., Kalwarowsky, K., Atkinson, J., Braddick, O., & Nardini, M. (2014). Automated measurement of resolution acuity in infants using remote eye-tracking. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 55(12), 8102-8110.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 10, 2014
Publication Date Dec 12, 2014
Deposit Date Oct 30, 2014
Journal Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Print ISSN 0146-0404
Electronic ISSN 1552-5783
Publisher Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 55
Issue 12
Pages 8102-8110
Keywords Visual acuity, Infant vision, Eye-tracking.