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The Occupational Feminization of Wages

Addison, J.T.; Ozturk, O.D.; Wang, S.

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O.D. Ozturk

S. Wang


This article updates the 1995 study by Macpherson and Hirsch that used monthly Current Population Survey (CPS) data from 1973 to 1993 to examine the effects of occupational gender composition on earnings. In the updating process, the authors correct for biases in this data set that are attributable to the inclusion of imputed earners and the misreporting of occupation. They use CPS data from 1996 to 2010 to provide cross-sectional estimates of the impact of the feminization of occupations on wages, as well as its contribution to the gender wage gap. Longitudinal CPS data indicate that the negative effects of gender composition on earnings observed in cross-sectional data are lessened when researchers control for observed heterogeneity and are much reduced when controlling for unobserved heterogeneity. These findings are confirmed using much longer panels from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). Finally, the use of synthetic panels of aging cohorts suggests that wage penalties are largest for younger cohorts in predominantly female occupations.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 5, 2016
Online Publication Date Apr 28, 2017
Publication Date 2018
Deposit Date Oct 11, 2016
Publicly Available Date Oct 12, 2016
Journal Industrial and Labor Relations Review
Print ISSN 0019-7939
Electronic ISSN 2162-271X
Publisher SAGE Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 7
Issue 1
Pages 208-241
Public URL


Accepted Journal Article (596 Kb)

Copyright Statement
Addison, J.T. and Ozturk, O.D. and Wang, S. (2018) 'The occupational feminization of wages.', ILR review., 7 (1). pp. 208-241. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications.

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