This report provides a differential diagnosis of an exostotic bony lesion within the left maxillary sinus of a Romano-British (3rd to 4th century AD) adult male from Newport, Lincoln. Macroscopic, radiographic, and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) analyses suggest that the lesion is likely of odontogenic origin. The overall size of the lesion and areas of sclerosis and radiolucency, together with its hypothesised odontogenic origin, suggest that the lesion represents a chronic exostotic osteomyelitic reaction to the presence of odontogenic bacteria. While modern case studies of odontogenic maxillary sinus osteomyelitis are noteworthy, published cases of this condition are extremely rare in an archaeological context and may be underreported due to the enclosed nature of the sinuses. Such infections may have serious implications for individual and population health, and non-destructive investigation should be considered in cases where significant maxillary caries are present.
Kendall, R., Kendall, E., Macleod, I., Gowland, R., & Beaumont, J. (2015). An unusual exostotic lesion of the maxillary sinus from Roman Lincoln. International Journal of Paleopathology, 11, 45-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp.2015.09.001