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The Copernicus Complexio: a high-resolution view of the small-scale Universe

Hellwing, W.A.; Frenk, C.S.; Cautun, M.; Bose, S.; Helly, J.; Jenkins, A.; Sawala, T.; Cytowski, M.

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W.A. Hellwing

M. Cautun

S. Bose

T. Sawala

M. Cytowski


We introduce Copernicus Complexio (COCO), a high-resolution cosmological N-body simulation of structure formation in the ΛCDM model. COCO follows an approximately spherical region of radius ∼17.4 h−1 Mpc embedded in a much larger periodic cube that is followed at lower resolution. The high-resolution volume has a particle mass of 1.135 × 105 h−1 M⊙ (60 times higher than the Millennium-II simulation). COCO gives the dark matter halo mass function over eight orders of magnitude in halo mass; it forms ∼60 haloes of galactic size, each resolved with about 10 million particles. We confirm the power-law character of the subhalo mass function, , down to a reduced subhalo mass Msub/M200 ≡ μ = 10−6, with a best-fitting power-law index, s = 0.94, for hosts of mass 〈M200〉 = 1012 h−1 M⊙. The concentration–mass relation of COCO haloes deviates from a single power law for masses M200 < afew × 108 h−1 M⊙, where it flattens, in agreement with results by Sanchez-Conde et al. The host mass invariance of the reduced maximum circular velocity function of subhaloes, ν ≡ Vmax/V200, hinted at in previous simulations, is clearly demonstrated over five orders of magnitude in host mass. Similarly, we find that the average, normalized radial distribution of subhaloes is approximately universal (i.e. independent of subhalo mass), as previously suggested by the Aquarius simulations of individual haloes. Finally, we find that at fixed physical subhalo size, subhaloes in lower mass hosts typically have lower central densities than those in higher mass hosts.


Hellwing, W., Frenk, C., Cautun, M., Bose, S., Helly, J., Jenkins, A., …Cytowski, M. (2016). The Copernicus Complexio: a high-resolution view of the small-scale Universe. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 457(4), 3492-3509.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 23, 2016
Online Publication Date Feb 8, 2016
Publication Date Apr 21, 2016
Deposit Date Apr 5, 2016
Publicly Available Date Apr 7, 2016
Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Print ISSN 0035-8711
Electronic ISSN 1365-2966
Publisher Royal Astronomical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 457
Issue 4
Pages 3492-3509


Published Journal Article (3.5 Mb)

Copyright Statement
This article has been published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ©: 2016 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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