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Phosphate-Free Inhibition of Calcium Carbonate Dishwasher Deposits

Hong, Yuexian; Letzelter, Nathalie; Evans, John S.O.; Yufit, Dmitry S; Steed, Jonathan W.

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Yuexian Hong

Nathalie Letzelter

John S.O. Evans

Dmitry S Yufit


This paper reports the characterization of the composition and morphology of mineral formation on glass and plastic (polymethylmethacrylate) substrates in a dishwasher environment and the identification of suitable phosphate-free mineral crystallization inhibitors as environmentally benign candidates to replace the currently used phosphate-containing inhibitor 1-hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphoric acid (HEDP). Screening of the calcium carbonate crystallization inhibition performance of twenty-eight different compounds resulted in the identification of two phosphate-free, cyclic polycarboxylic acid inhibitors, which were found in combination to be effective replacements. Each inhibitor proved to be highly substrate specific with all-cis-cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexacarboxylic acid (CHHCA) preventing deposition on glass (where calcite is the dominant polymorph) and cis,cis,cis,cis-cyclopentane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid (CPTCA) inhibiting aragonite deposition on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). When used in combination, these two species prevented all forms of calcium carbonate deposition on both substrate types. The underlying inhibition mechanism and structural requirements of an efficient calcium carbonate inhibitor are also discussed.


Hong, Y., Letzelter, N., Evans, J. S., Yufit, D. S., & Steed, J. W. (2018). Phosphate-Free Inhibition of Calcium Carbonate Dishwasher Deposits. Crystal Growth and Design, 18(3), 1526-1538.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 22, 2018
Online Publication Date Jan 22, 2018
Publication Date Mar 7, 2018
Deposit Date Jan 30, 2018
Publicly Available Date Jan 22, 2019
Journal Crystal Growth and Design
Print ISSN 1528-7483
Electronic ISSN 1528-7505
Publisher American Chemical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 18
Issue 3
Pages 1526-1538


Accepted Journal Article (2.2 Mb)

Copyright Statement
This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Crystal Growth & Design, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see

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