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The linking of the upper-middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River as a result of fluvial entrenchment

Hu, ZhenBo; Pan, BoaTian; Bridgland, David; Vandenberghe, Jef; Guo, LianYong; Fan, YunLong; Westaway, Rob

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ZhenBo Hu

BoaTian Pan

Jef Vandenberghe

LianYong Guo

YunLong Fan

Rob Westaway


The upper–middle Yellow River flows through the Fenwei graben, a structure resulting from extensional tectonism that was formed and repeatedly extended during the Cenozoic. The drainage system within this graben was formerly isolated from the lower reaches of the Yellow River system by the Xiaoshan mountains, an actively growing ∼ NW–SE trending range. The modern course of the Yellow River takes it through this range along the Sanmen gorge, the formation of which was of great significance in that it initiated through-going drainage between the upper–middle and lower reaches of the system. The timing of this event, which was clearly a critical point in the evolution of the Yellow River, can be established by dating the terraces in the gorge. Intermittent deepening of this gorge by the Yellow River from a high-level planation surface capping the mountain range has resulted in the formation of five terraces. Magnetostratigraphic records from aeolian deposits accumulated on these surfaces provide a geochronological sequence for this geomorphic archive, in which the ages of the planation surface and of terraces T5, T4, T3, T2, and T1 have been determined as ∼3.63 Ma, ∼1.24 Ma, ∼0.86 Ma, ∼0.62 Ma, ∼129 ka, and ∼12 ka, respectively. Under the constraint of this chronological framework, a model for landscape evolution is proposed here. Uplift of the inner Fenwei graben and of the surrounding mountain ranges led to dissection of the 3.63 Ma old planation surface in conjunction with the formation of the Sanmen gorge. Drainage of the lake previously occupying the basin would have promoted incision into the fluvio-lacustrine graben sediments; indeed, gorge formation through the Xiaoshan may have been initiated or intensified by lake overflow. The ages obtained for the planation surface and uppermost terrace suggest that the formation of the Sanmen gorge and the initiation of the through-going eastward drainage of the Yellow River occurred between 3.63 and 1.24 Ma. Before the start of gorge entrenchment, the products of erosion in the modern upper catchment of the Yellow River were unable to reach the sea. The dramatic increase in deposition rates in the Bohai Gulf (at the mouth of the modern Yellow River in the East China Sea), ∼1.0 Ma ago, thus resulted from the initiation of an integral (enlarged) Yellow River catchment drainage through the Sanmen gorge; it does not imply an increase in erosion rates at that time.


Hu, Z., Pan, B., Bridgland, D., Vandenberghe, J., Guo, L., Fan, Y., & Westaway, R. (2017). The linking of the upper-middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River as a result of fluvial entrenchment. Quaternary Science Reviews, 166, 324-338.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 27, 2017
Online Publication Date Mar 11, 2017
Publication Date Jun 15, 2017
Deposit Date Mar 22, 2017
Publicly Available Date Mar 11, 2018
Journal Quaternary Science Reviews
Print ISSN 0277-3791
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 166
Pages 324-338


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