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Do Images of Biskyrmions Show Type-II Bubbles?

Loudon, James C.; Twitchett-Harrison, Alison C.; Cortés-Ortuño, David; Birch, Max T.; Turnbull, Luke A.; Štefančič, Aleš; Ogrin, Feodor Y.; Burgos-Parra, Erick O.; Bukin, Nicholas; Laurenson, Angus; Popescu, Horia; Beg, Marijan; Hovorka, Ondrej; Fangohr, Hans; Midgley, Paul A.; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Hatton, Peter D.

Do Images of Biskyrmions Show Type-II Bubbles? Thumbnail


James C. Loudon

Alison C. Twitchett-Harrison

David Cortés-Ortuño

Max T. Birch

Aleš Štefančič

Feodor Y. Ogrin

Erick O. Burgos-Parra

Nicholas Bukin

Angus Laurenson

Horia Popescu

Marijan Beg

Ondrej Hovorka

Hans Fangohr

Paul A. Midgley

Geetha Balakrishnan


The intense research effort investigating magnetic skyrmions and their applications for spintronics has yielded reports of more exotic objects including the biskyrmion, which consists of a bound pair of counter‐rotating vortices of magnetization. Biskyrmions have been identified only from transmission electron microscopy images and have not been observed by other techniques, nor seen in simulations carried out under realistic conditions. Here, quantitative Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, X‐ray holography, and micromagnetic simulations are combined to search for biskyrmions in MnNiGa, a material in which they have been reported. Only type‐I and type‐II magnetic bubbles are found and images purported to show biskyrmions can be explained as type‐II bubbles viewed at an angle to their axes. It is not the magnetization but the magnetic flux density resulting from this object that forms the counter‐rotating vortices.


Loudon, J. C., Twitchett-Harrison, A. C., Cortés-Ortuño, D., Birch, M. T., Turnbull, L. A., Štefančič, A., …Hatton, P. D. (2019). Do Images of Biskyrmions Show Type-II Bubbles?. Advanced Materials, 31(16), Article 1806598.

Journal Article Type Article
Online Publication Date Mar 7, 2019
Publication Date Mar 19, 2019
Deposit Date Mar 19, 2019
Publicly Available Date Apr 17, 2019
Journal Advanced Materials
Print ISSN 0935-9648
Electronic ISSN 1521-4095
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 31
Issue 16
Article Number 1806598


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Copyright Statement
Advance online version © 2019 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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