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TADF Dye-Loaded Nanoparticles for Fluorescence Live-Cell Imaging

Crucho, Carina I.C.; Avó, João; Diniz, Ana M.; Pinto, Sandra N.; Barbosa, José; Smith, Poppy O.; Berberan-Santos, Mário Nuno; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Dias, Fernando B.

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Carina I.C. Crucho

João Avó

Ana M. Diniz

Sandra N. Pinto

José Barbosa

Poppy O. Smith

Mário Nuno Berberan-Santos


Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecules offer nowadays a powerful tool in the development of novel organic light emitting diodes due to their capability of harvesting energy from non-emissive triplet states without using heavy-metal complexes. TADF emitters have very small energy difference between the singlet and triplet excited states, which makes thermally activated reverse intersystem crossing from the triplet states back to the singlet manifold viable. This mechanism generates a long-lived delayed fluorescence component which can be explored in the sensing of oxygen concentration, local temperature, or used in time-gated optical cell-imaging, to suppress interference from autofluorescence and scattering. Despite this strong potential, until recently the application of TADF outside lighting devices has been hindered due to the low biocompatibility, low aqueous solubility and poor performance in polar media shown by the vast majority of TADF emitters. To achieve TADF luminescence in biological media, careful selection or design of emitters is required. Unfortunately, most TADF molecules are not emissive in polar media, thus complexation with biomolecules or the formation of emissive aggregate states is required, in order to retain the delayed fluorescence that is characteristic of these compounds. Herein, we demonstrate a facile method with great generalization potential that maintains the photophysical properties of solvated dyes by combining luminescent molecules with polymeric nanoparticles. Using an established swelling procedure, two known TADF emitters are loaded onto polystyrene nanoparticles to prepare TADF emitting nanomaterials able to be used in live-cell imaging. The obtained particles were characterized by optical spectroscopy and exhibited the desired TADF emission in aqueous media, due to the polymeric matrix shielding the dye from solvent polarity effects. The prepared nanoparticles were incubated with live human cancer cells and showed very low cytotoxicity and good cellular uptake, thus making fluorescence microscopy imaging possible at low dye concentrations.


Crucho, C. I., Avó, J., Diniz, A. M., Pinto, S. N., Barbosa, J., Smith, P. O., …Dias, F. B. (2020). TADF Dye-Loaded Nanoparticles for Fluorescence Live-Cell Imaging. Frontiers in Chemistry, 8, Article 404.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 25, 2020
Online Publication Date Apr 17, 2020
Publication Date 2020
Deposit Date May 15, 2020
Publicly Available Date May 15, 2020
Journal Frontiers in Chemistry
Publisher Frontiers Media
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 8
Article Number 404


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Copyright Statement
Copyright © 2020 Crucho, Avó, Diniz, Pinto, Barbosa, Smith, Berberan-Santos, Pålsson and Dias. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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