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Hubble Space Telescope [O iii] emission-line kinematics in two nearby QSO2s: a case for X-ray feedback

Trindade Falcão, Anna; Kraemer, SB; Fischer, TC; Crenshaw, DM; Revalski, M; Schmitt, HR; Maksym, WP; Vestergaard, M; Elvis, M; Gaskell, CM; Hamann, F; Ho, LC; Hutchings, J; Mushotzky, R; Netzer, H; Storchi-Bergmann, T; Turner, TJ; Ward, MJ

Hubble Space Telescope [O iii] emission-line kinematics in two nearby QSO2s: a case for X-ray feedback Thumbnail


Anna Trindade Falcão

SB Kraemer

TC Fischer

DM Crenshaw

M Revalski

HR Schmitt

WP Maksym

M Vestergaard

M Elvis

CM Gaskell

F Hamann


J Hutchings

R Mushotzky

H Netzer

T Storchi-Bergmann

TJ Turner


We present a dynamical study of the narrow-line regions in two nearby type 2 quasars (QSO2s). We construct dynamical models based on detailed photoionization models of the emission-line gas, including the effects of internal dust, to apply to observations of large-scale outflows from these active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use Mrk 477 and Mrk 34 in order to test our models against recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations of [O III] emission-line kinematics, since these AGNs possess more energetic outflows than found in Seyfert galaxies. We find that the outflows within 500 pc are consistent with radiative acceleration of dusty gas, however the outflows in Mrk 34 are significantly more extended and may not be directly accelerated by radiation. We characterize the properties of X-ray winds found from the expansion of [O III]-emitting gas close to the black hole. We show that such winds possess the kinetic energy density to disturb [O III] gas at ∼1.8 kpc, and have sufficient energy to entrain the [O III] clouds at ∼1.2 kpc. Assuming that the X-ray wind possesses the same radial mass distribution as the [O III] gas, we find that the peak kinetic luminosity for this wind is 2 per cent of Mrk 34’s bolometric luminosity, which is in the 0.5–5 per cent range required by some models for efficient feedback. Our work shows that, although the kinetic luminosity as measured from [O III]-emitting gas is frequently low, X-ray winds may provide more than one order of magnitude higher kinetic power.


Trindade Falcão, A., Kraemer, S., Fischer, T., Crenshaw, D., Revalski, M., Schmitt, H., …Ward, M. (2021). Hubble Space Telescope [O iii] emission-line kinematics in two nearby QSO2s: a case for X-ray feedback. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 505(2), 3054-3069.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 25, 2021
Online Publication Date May 28, 2021
Publication Date 2021-08
Deposit Date Nov 16, 2021
Publicly Available Date Nov 16, 2021
Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Print ISSN 0035-8711
Electronic ISSN 1365-2966
Publisher Royal Astronomical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 505
Issue 2
Pages 3054-3069


Published Journal Article (3.1 Mb)

Copyright Statement
This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. ©: 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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