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First results of undersea muography with the Tokyo-Bay Seafloor Hyper-Kilometric Submarine Deep Detector

Tanaka, Hiroyuki K.M.; Aichi, Masaatsu; Bozza, Cristiano; Coniglione, Rosa; Gluyas, Jon; Hayashi, Naoto; Holma, Marko; Kamoshida, Osamu; Kato, Yasuhiro; Kin, Tadahiro; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Leone, Giovanni; Presti, Domenico Lo; Matsushima, Jun; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Mori, Hirohisa; Nomura, Yukihiro; Oláh, László; Steigerwald, Sara; Shimazoe, Kenji; Sumiya, Kenji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Thompson, Lee F.; Yokota, Yusuke; Paling, Sean; Varga, Dezső

First results of undersea muography with the Tokyo-Bay Seafloor Hyper-Kilometric Submarine Deep Detector Thumbnail


Hiroyuki K.M. Tanaka

Masaatsu Aichi

Cristiano Bozza

Rosa Coniglione

Naoto Hayashi

Marko Holma

Osamu Kamoshida

Yasuhiro Kato

Tadahiro Kin

Pasi Kuusiniemi

Giovanni Leone

Domenico Lo Presti

Jun Matsushima

Hideaki Miyamoto

Hirohisa Mori

Yukihiro Nomura

László Oláh

Sara Steigerwald

Kenji Shimazoe

Kenji Sumiya

Hiroyuki Takahashi

Lee F. Thompson

Yusuke Yokota

Sean Paling

Dezső Varga


Tidal measurements are of great significance since they may provide us with essential data to apply towards protection of coastal communities and sea traffic. Currently, tide gauge stations and laser altimetry are commonly used for these measurements. On the other hand, muography sensors can be located underneath the seafloor inside an undersea tunnel where electric and telecommunication infrastructures are more readily available. In this work, the world’s first under-seafloor particle detector array called the Tokyo-bay Seafloor Hyper-Kilometric Submarine Deep Detector (TS-HKMSDD) was deployed underneath the Tokyo-Bay seafloor for conducting submarine muography. The resultant 80-day consecutive time-sequential muographic data were converted to the tidal levels based on the parameters determined from the first-day astronomical tide height (ATH) data. The standard deviation between ATH and muographic results for the rest of a 79-day measurement period was 12.85 cm. We anticipate that if the length of the TS-HKMSDD is extended from 100 m to a full-scale as large as 9.6 km to provide continuous tidal information along the tunnel, this muography application will become an established standard, demonstrating its effectiveness as practical tide monitor for this heavy traffic waterway in Tokyo and in other important sea traffic areas worldwide.


Tanaka, H. K., Aichi, M., Bozza, C., Coniglione, R., Gluyas, J., Hayashi, N., …Varga, D. (2021). First results of undersea muography with the Tokyo-Bay Seafloor Hyper-Kilometric Submarine Deep Detector. Scientific Reports, 11(1),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 3, 2021
Online Publication Date Sep 30, 2021
Publication Date 2021
Deposit Date Jan 11, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jan 11, 2022
Journal Scientific Reports
Electronic ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher Nature Research
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 1


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