Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Antibacterial Activity of Clay Soils against Food-Borne Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus

Azmi, Nur Naqiyah; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Wan Omar, Wan Hasyera; Mahmud Ab Rashid, Nor-Khaizura; Ishak, Che Fauziah; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Sharples, Gary J.

Antibacterial Activity of Clay Soils against Food-Borne Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus Thumbnail


Authors

Nur Naqiyah Azmi

Nor Ainy Mahyudin

Wan Hasyera Wan Omar

Nor-Khaizura Mahmud Ab Rashid

Che Fauziah Ishak

Abdul Halim Abdullah



Abstract

Natural clays have recently been proven to possess antibacterial properties. Effective natural antimicrobial agents are needed to combat bacterial contamination on food contact surfaces, which are increasingly more prevalent in the food chain. This study sought to determine the antibacterial activity of clays against the food-borne pathogens Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 13565. Soils were processed to yield leachates and suspensions from untreated and treated clays. Soil particle size, pH, cation-exchange capacity, metal composition and mineralogy were characterized. Antibacterial screening was performed on six Malaysian soils via the disc diffusion method. In addition, a time-kill assay was conducted on selected antibacterial clays after 6 h of exposure. The screening revealed that Munchong and Carey clays significantly inhibit Salmonella typhimurium (11.00 ± 0.71 mm) and S. aureus (7.63 ± 0.48 mm), respectively. Treated Carey clay leachate and suspension completely kill Salmonella typhimurium, while S. aureus viability is reduced (2 to 3 log10). The untreated Carey and all Munchong clays proved ineffective as antibacterials. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of pyrite and magnetite. Treated Carey clays had a higher soluble metal content compared to Munchong; namely Al (92.63 ± 2.18 mg/L), Fe (65.69 ± 3.09 mg/L) and Mg (88.48 ± 2.29 mg/L). Our results suggest that metal ion toxicity is responsible for the antibacterial activity of these clays.

Citation

Azmi, N. N., Mahyudin, N. A., Wan Omar, W. H., Mahmud Ab Rashid, N., Ishak, C. F., Abdullah, A. H., & Sharples, G. J. (2022). Antibacterial Activity of Clay Soils against Food-Borne Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules, 27(1), Article 170. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010170

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 24, 2021
Online Publication Date Dec 28, 2021
Publication Date Jan 1, 2022
Deposit Date Mar 15, 2022
Publicly Available Date Mar 15, 2022
Journal Molecules
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 27
Issue 1
Article Number 170
DOI https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010170

Files

Published Journal Article (1.2 Mb)
PDF

Publisher Licence URL
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Copyright Statement
This article is an open access article
distributed under the terms and
conditions of the Creative Commons
Attribution (CC BY) license (https://
creativecommons.org/licenses/by/
4.0/).






You might also like



Downloadable Citations