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A Potential Role of Keratinocyte-Derived Bilirubin in Human Skin Yellowness and Its Amelioration by Sucrose Laurate/Dilaurate

Fang, Bin; Card, Patrick D.; Chen, Junjun; Li, Lijuan; Laughlin, Timothy; Jarrold, Bradley; Zhao, Wenzhu; Benham, Adam M.; Määttä, Arto T.; Hawkins, Timothy J.; Hakozaki, Tomohiro

A Potential Role of Keratinocyte-Derived Bilirubin in Human Skin Yellowness and Its Amelioration by Sucrose Laurate/Dilaurate Thumbnail


Authors

Bin Fang

Patrick D. Card

Junjun Chen

Lijuan Li

Timothy Laughlin

Bradley Jarrold

Wenzhu Zhao

Arto T. Määttä

Tomohiro Hakozaki



Abstract

Sallow and/or dull skin appearance is greatly attributable to the yellow components of skin tone. Bilirubin is a yellow chromophore known to be made in the liver and/or spleen and is transported throughout the body via the blood stream. Recent publications suggest bilirubin may be synthesized in other cells/organs, including the skin. We found human keratinocytes express the transcripts involved in bilirubin biosynthesis. In parallel, we also found human keratinocytes could indeed synthesize bilirubin in monolayer keratinocytes and in a 3D human skin-equivalent model. The synthesized amount was substantial enough to contribute to skin yellowness. In addition, oxidative stress enhanced bilirubin production. Using UnaG, a protein that forms a fluorescent species upon binding to bilirubin, we also visualized the intracellular expression of bilirubin in keratinocytes. Finally, we screened a compound library and discovered that the sucrose laurate/dilaurate (SDL) combination significantly reduced bilirubin levels, as well as bilirubin-mediated yellowness. In conclusion, bilirubin is indeed synthesized in epidermal keratinocytes and can be upregulated by oxidative stress, which could contribute to chronic or transient yellow skin tone appearance. Application of SDL diminishes bilirubin generation and may be a potential solution to mitigate yellowish and/or dull skin appearance.

Citation

Fang, B., Card, P. D., Chen, J., Li, L., Laughlin, T., Jarrold, B., …Hakozaki, T. (2022). A Potential Role of Keratinocyte-Derived Bilirubin in Human Skin Yellowness and Its Amelioration by Sucrose Laurate/Dilaurate. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(11), Article 5884. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23115884

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 18, 2022
Online Publication Date May 24, 2022
Publication Date 2022
Deposit Date Jul 18, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jul 18, 2022
Journal International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Print ISSN 1661-6596
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 23
Issue 11
Article Number 5884
DOI https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23115884

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Publisher Licence URL
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Copyright Statement
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited







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