Brian K. Tanner
X-ray diffraction imaging of fully packaged n–p–n transistors under accelerated ageing conditions
Tanner, Brian K.; Danilewsky, Andreas; McNally, Patrick J.
Patrick J. McNally
X-ray diffraction imaging was used to monitor the local strains that developed around individual n–p–n bipolar transistors within fully encapsulated packages under conditions of extremely high forward bias to simulate accelerated ageing. Die warpage associated with the packaging was observed to relax systematically as the polymer became viscous due to the temperature rise associated with the dissipation of heat in the transistor. The direct image size and intensity from the individual transistors were interpreted in terms of a model in which local thermal expansion is treated as a cylindrical inclusion of distorted material, contrast arising principally from lattice tilt. The extension of the thermal strain image along the emitter with increasing power dissipation was ascribed to the effect of current crowding in the emitter region. Weaker large-area contrast associated with the base–collector region was interpreted as arising from the smaller change in effective misorientation at the high X-ray energy of thermal lattice dilation in the base region.
Tanner, B. K., Danilewsky, A., & McNally, P. J. (2022). X-ray diffraction imaging of fully packaged n–p–n transistors under accelerated ageing conditions. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 55(5), 1139-1146. https://doi.org/10.1107/s1600576722007142
|Journal Article Type||Article|
|Acceptance Date||Jul 11, 2022|
|Online Publication Date||Aug 30, 2022|
|Deposit Date||Oct 12, 2022|
|Publicly Available Date||Oct 12, 2022|
|Journal||Journal of Applied Crystallography|
|Publisher||International Union of Crystallography|
|Peer Reviewed||Peer Reviewed|
Published Journal Article
Publisher Licence URL
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
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