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Molecular clusters in confined spaces

Braschinsky, Alan; Steed, Jonathan W.

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Alan Braschinsky


Confinement chemistry is a growing field with many potential applications in the synthetic, catalytic and especially pharmaceutical industries. Confinement of materials can reveal novel properties as compared to their bulk. They can also give insight into the nucleation and crystallization processes at the nanoscale. In this review, we focus on enclosed molecular clusters, from small aggregates to nucleation effects and ultimately crystallization within confining matrices such as metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), discrete cages, nanopores and droplets ranging from 5 Å to 2 mm. This review aims to impact on the discovery of new drug solid forms, drug delivery, crystal engineering, water harvesting, and gas capture among other topics.


Braschinsky, A., & Steed, J. W. (2022). Molecular clusters in confined spaces. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 473,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 9, 2022
Online Publication Date Sep 24, 2022
Publication Date 2022-12
Deposit Date Oct 26, 2022
Publicly Available Date Oct 26, 2022
Journal Coordination Chemistry Reviews
Print ISSN 0010-8545
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 473


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