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Estimating the social value of nature-based solutions in European cities

Bockarjova, Marija; Botzen, W.J. Wouter; Bulkeley, Harriet A.; Toxopeus, Helen

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Marija Bockarjova

W.J. Wouter Botzen

Helen Toxopeus


By implementing nature-based solutions (NBS), cities generate value for their residents, such as health and wellbeing. We estimate the aggregate social value to urban residents of 85 NBS projects implemented across Europe and find that the majority yield attractive social returns on investment. We offer a new metric to support investments for NBS by public and private actors for whom social value creation to residents is a core objective.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 7, 2022
Online Publication Date Nov 18, 2022
Publication Date 2022
Deposit Date Nov 9, 2022
Publicly Available Date Feb 13, 2023
Journal Scientific Reports
Publisher Nature Research
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 12
Issue 2022
Article Number 19833
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Published Journal Article (1.9 Mb)

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Copyright Statement
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

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