Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

How Personalization Affects Motivation in Gamified Review Assessments

Rodrigues, Luiz; Palomino, Paula T.; Toda, Armando M.; Klock, Ana C.T.; Pessoa, Marcela; Pereira, Filipe D.; Oliveira, Elaine H.T.; Oliveira, David F.; Cristea, Alexandra I.; Gasparini, Isabela; Isotani, Seiji

How Personalization Affects Motivation in Gamified Review Assessments Thumbnail


Luiz Rodrigues

Paula T. Palomino

Armando M. Toda

Ana C.T. Klock

Marcela Pessoa

Filipe D. Pereira

Elaine H.T. Oliveira

David F. Oliveira

Isabela Gasparini

Seiji Isotani


Personalized gamification aims to address shortcomings of the one-size-fits-all (OSFA) approach in improving students’ motivations throughout the learning process. However, studies still focus on personalizing to a single user dimension, ignoring multiple individual and contextual factors that affect user motivation. Unlike prior research, we address this issue by exploring multidimensional personalization compared to OSFA based on a multi-institution sample. Thus, we conducted a controlled experiment in three institutions, comparing gamification designs (OSFA and Personalized to the learning task and users’ gaming habits/preferences and demographics) in terms of 58 students’ motivations to complete assessments for learning. Our results suggest no significant differences among OSFA and Personalized designs, despite suggesting user motivation depended on fewer user characteristics when using personalization. Additionally, exploratory analyses suggest personalization was positive for females and those holding a technical degree, but negative for those who prefer adventure games and those who prefer single-playing. Our contribution benefits designers, suggesting how personalization works; practitioners, demonstrating to whom the personalization strategy was more or less suitable; and researchers, providing future research directions.


Rodrigues, L., Palomino, P. T., Toda, A. M., Klock, A. C., Pessoa, M., Pereira, F. D., …Isotani, S. (2023). How Personalization Affects Motivation in Gamified Review Assessments. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 12, 2022
Online Publication Date Jan 10, 2023
Publication Date Jan 10, 2023
Deposit Date Jan 11, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jan 11, 2024
Journal International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
Print ISSN 1560-4292
Electronic ISSN 1560-4306
Publisher Springer
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Public URL


Accepted Journal Article (683 Kb)

Copyright Statement
This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:

You might also like

Downloadable Citations