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GamiCSM: relating education, culture and gamification - a link between worlds

Toda, Armando; Klock, Ana Carolina Tomé; Palomino, Paula T.; Rodrigues, Luiz; Oliveira, Wilk; Stewart, Craig; Cristea, Alexandra I.; Gasparini, Isabela; Isotani, Seiji

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Armando Toda

Ana Carolina Tomé Klock

Paula T. Palomino

Luiz Rodrigues

Wilk Oliveira

Isabela Gasparini

Seiji Isotani


The potential of gamification to improve users' motivation and engagement influenced many researchers and professionals to analyse its effects in educational settings. While some studies focus on adapting game elements according to demographic and behavioural information of the user profile, few of them explore (or even consider) cultural factors. These cultural factors play an essential role in our societies' development. Thus, this work proposes and evaluates a representative model to understand better the relationship between cultural factors and gamification within educational domains, namely the Gamification for Cultural Studies Model (GamiCSM). Through a qualitative approach, we map Hofstede's cultural dimensions (i.e., power distance, individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, long/short-term orientation, and indulgence/restraint) with a Taxonomy of Gamification Elements for Education (TGEEE), a recent model for gamification elements for educational environments. Furthermore, we adapted a survey to evaluate the resultant model with eight domain experts in gamification and education. Based on this evaluation, we are able to propose a starting model, containing some additional refinements and improvements. Thus, the main contributions of this work are: (i) the first model to relate game elements and cultural dimensions within educational domains and (ii) a state-of-the-art empirical study intersecting culture, gamification and education.


Toda, A., Klock, A. C. T., Palomino, P. T., Rodrigues, L., Oliveira, W., Stewart, C., …Isotani, S. (2020). GamiCSM: relating education, culture and gamification - a link between worlds. .

Presentation Conference Type Conference Paper (Published)
Conference Name 19th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Start Date Oct 26, 2020
End Date Oct 30, 2020
Online Publication Date Oct 26, 2020
Publication Date 2020
Deposit Date Nov 3, 2021
Publicly Available Date Nov 3, 2021
Publisher Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Pages 1-10
ISBN 9781450381727
Public URL


Accepted Conference Proceeding (588 Kb)

Copyright Statement
© Owner/Author | ACM (2020). This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive Version of Record was published in Proceedings of the 19th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems,

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