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Programmable synthesis of organic cages with reduced symmetry

Andrews, Keith G.; Horton, Peter N.; Coles, Simon J.

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Peter N. Horton

Simon J. Coles


Integrating symmetry-reducing methods into self-assembly methodology is desirable to efficiently realise the full potential of molecular cages as hosts and catalysts. Although techniques have been explored for metal organic (coordination) cages, rational strategies to develop low symmetry organic cages remain limited. In this article, we describe rules to program the shape and symmetry of organic cage cavities by designing edge pieces that bias the orientation of the amide linkages. We apply the rules to synthesise cages with well-defined cavities, supported by evidence from crystallography, spectroscopy and modelling. Access to low-symmetry, self-assembled organic cages such as those presented, will widen the current bottleneck preventing study of organic enzyme mimics, and provide synthetic tools for novel functional material design.


Andrews, K. G., Horton, P. N., & Coles, S. J. (in press). Programmable synthesis of organic cages with reduced symmetry. Chemical Science,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 31, 2024
Online Publication Date Apr 1, 2024
Deposit Date Apr 9, 2024
Publicly Available Date Apr 10, 2024
Journal Chemical Science
Print ISSN 2041-6520
Electronic ISSN 2041-6539
Publisher Royal Society of Chemistry
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords General Chemistry
Public URL


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