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A Tidally Induced Global Corrugation Pattern in an External Disk Galaxy Similar to the Milky Way

Gómez, Facundo A.; Torres-Flores, Sergio; Mora-Urrejola, Catalina; Monachesi, Antonela; White, Simon D.M.; Maffione, Nicolas P.; Grand, Robert J.J.; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker; Frenk, Carlos S.; Amram, Philippe; Epinat, Benoît; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes

A Tidally Induced Global Corrugation Pattern in an External Disk Galaxy Similar to the Milky Way Thumbnail


Facundo A. Gómez

Sergio Torres-Flores

Catalina Mora-Urrejola

Antonela Monachesi

Simon D.M. White

Nicolas P. Maffione

Robert J.J. Grand

Federico Marinacci

Rüdiger Pakmor

Volker Springel

Philippe Amram

Benoît Epinat

Claudia Mendes de Oliveira


We study the two-dimensional (2D) line-of-sight velocity (Vlos) field of the low-inclination, late-type galaxy VV304a. The resulting 2D kinematic map reveals a global, coherent, and extended perturbation that is likely associated with a recent interaction with the massive companion VV304b. We use multiband imaging and a suite of test-particle simulations to quantify the plausible strength of in-plane flows due to nonaxisymmetric perturbations and show that the observed velocity flows are much too large to be driven either by a spiral structure or by a bar. We use fully cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to characterize the contribution from in- and off-plane velocity flows to the Vlos field of recently interacting galaxy pairs like the VV304 system. We show that, for recently perturbed low-inclination galactic disks, the structure of the residual velocity field, after subtraction of an axisymmetric rotation model, can be dominated by vertical flows. Our results indicate that the Vlos perturbations in VV304a are consistent with a corrugation pattern. Its Vlos map suggests the presence of a structure similar to the Monoceros ring seen in the Milky Way. Our study highlights the possibility of addressing important questions regarding the nature and origin of vertical perturbations by measuring the line-of-sight velocities in low-inclination nearby galaxies.


Gómez, F. A., Torres-Flores, S., Mora-Urrejola, C., Monachesi, A., White, S. D., Maffione, N. P., …de Oliveira, C. M. (2021). A Tidally Induced Global Corrugation Pattern in an External Disk Galaxy Similar to the Milky Way. Astrophysical Journal, 908(1), Article 27.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 23, 2020
Online Publication Date Feb 9, 2021
Publication Date Feb 10, 2021
Deposit Date Jul 23, 2021
Publicly Available Date Feb 9, 2022
Journal Astrophysical Journal
Print ISSN 0004-637X
Electronic ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher American Astronomical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 908
Issue 1
Article Number 27
Related Public URLs


Accepted Journal Article (11.2 Mb)

Copyright Statement
This is the Accepted Manuscript version of an article accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal. IOP Publishing Ltd is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The Version of Record is available online at

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