Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Transactive Energy and Flexibility Provision in Multi-microgrids using Stackelberg Game

Hua, Weiqi; Xiao, Hao; Pei, Wei; Chiu, Wei-Yu; Jiang, Jing; Sun, Hongjian; Matthews, Peter

Transactive Energy and Flexibility Provision in Multi-microgrids using Stackelberg Game Thumbnail


Weiqi Hua

Hao Xiao

Wei Pei

Wei-Yu Chiu

Jing Jiang


Aggregating the demand side flexibility is essential to complementing the inflexible and variable renewable energy supply in achieving low carbon energy systems. Sources of demand side flexibility, e.g., dispatchable generators, storages, and flexible loads, can be structured in a form of microgrids and collectively provided to utility grids through transactive energy in local energy markets. This paper proposes a framework of local energy markets to manage the transactive energy and facilitate the flexibility provision. The distribution system operator aims to achieve local energy balance by scheduling the operation of multi-microgrids and determining the imbalance prices. Multiple microgrid traders aim to maximise profits for their prosumers through dispatching flexibility sources and participating in localised energy trading. The decision making and interactions between a distribution system operator and multiple microgrid traders are formulated as the Stackelberg game-theoretic problem. Case studies using the IEEE 69-bus distribution system demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed model in terms of facilitating the local energy balance and reducing the dependency on the utility grids.


Hua, W., Xiao, H., Pei, W., Chiu, W., Jiang, J., Sun, H., & Matthews, P. (2023). Transactive Energy and Flexibility Provision in Multi-microgrids using Stackelberg Game. CSEE journal of power and energy systems, 9(2), 505-515.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 8, 2021
Publication Date 2023-03
Deposit Date Dec 14, 2021
Publicly Available Date Dec 15, 2021
Journal CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems
Print ISSN 2096-0042
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 9
Issue 2
Pages 505-515


Accepted Journal Article (1.8 Mb)

Copyright Statement
© 2022 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

You might also like

Downloadable Citations