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Attitudes towards refugees: Introducing a short three‐dimensional scale

Kotzur, P.F.; Friehs, M.‐T.; Schmidt, P.; Wagner, U.; Pötzschke, S.; Weiß, B.

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M.‐T. Friehs

P. Schmidt

U. Wagner

S. Pötzschke

B. Weiß


Many researchers subscribe to the three-component conceptualization of attitudes, the idea that attitudes have cognitive, affective, and behavioural (intentional) components. Yet, these components are rarely considered simultaneously in scales, especially those measuring attitudes towards refugees. Moreover, it is debated how these components relate to one another. We present the development and validation of a six-item short-scale to measure attitudes towards refugees based on three surveys (Study 1: N = 330; Study 2a: N = 2,083; Study 2b: N = 2,174). We assessed the performance of this scale with respect to three rivalling attitude conceptualizations (one-factor, three-factor, and second-order factor model). We found that a three-factor or second-order factor conceptualization fitted best to the data. The scale had excellent psychometric properties. We hope that our work stimulates a wave of relevant research on attitudes towards refugees that applies this scale, and contributes to the debate on the conceptualization of attitudes in general.


Kotzur, P., Friehs, M., Schmidt, P., Wagner, U., Pötzschke, S., & Weiß, B. (2022). Attitudes towards refugees: Introducing a short three‐dimensional scale. British Journal of Social Psychology, 61(4), 1305-1331.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 16, 2022
Online Publication Date Mar 31, 2022
Publication Date 2022-10
Deposit Date Mar 31, 2022
Publicly Available Date Apr 1, 2022
Journal British Journal of Social Psychology
Print ISSN 0144-6665
Electronic ISSN 2044-8309
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 61
Issue 4
Pages 1305-1331


Published Journal Article (Advance Online Version) (451 Kb)

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Copyright Statement
Advance Online Version © 2022 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

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