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The influence of ambient cure chemistry and stoichiometry on epoxy coating surfaces

Bannister, Callum; Guy, Alan; Mihaylova, Ralitsa; Orgill, Joseph; Burg, Stephanie L.; Parnell, Andrew; Thompson, Richard L.

The influence of ambient cure chemistry and stoichiometry on epoxy coating surfaces Thumbnail


Callum Bannister

Alan Guy

Ralitsa Mihaylova

Joseph Orgill

Stephanie L. Burg

Andrew Parnell


The surface properties of epoxy resin coatings influence their function as substrates for subsequent coats. Variation in ambient cure conditions (temperature and relative humidity, RH), stoichiometry (ratio of epoxy: amine) and delay time between epoxy component mixing and film casting (“induction time”) significantly altered the surface properties of ambient cured epoxy resin coatings (Dow Epoxy Novolac D.E.N. 431, resorcinol diglycidyl ether and 4,4-diaminodicyclohexylmethane). Gravimetric analysis showed that increasing induction time significantly reduced surface layer formation (carbamation) of cured epoxy resin coatings at 80% RH but had no measurable effect at 40% RH and below. RMS surface roughness increased with increasing RH and decreased with increasing induction time and ambient cure temperature, at two stoichiometric extremes. However, the net change in surface area arising from these conditions was not sufficient to significantly alter the equilibrium contact angles or wetting regime. We conclude that the observed significant variation in surface wettability was more likely to depend on variation in surface chemistry than roughness; stoichiometry was the variable which most significantly influenced surface wettability, average void volume and fractional free volume, while cure temperature significantly influenced the extent of cure at both stoichiometries. Off-stoichiometry formulation and elevated ambient cure temperature significantly increased system average void volume while fractional free volume decreased, which may be significant for the barrier properties of the final coating.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 26, 2022
Online Publication Date Oct 10, 2022
Publication Date 2022
Deposit Date Feb 20, 2023
Publicly Available Date Feb 20, 2023
Journal RSC Advances
Publisher Royal Society of Chemistry
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 12
Issue 44
Pages 28746-28754
Public URL


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