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New pyrimidine- and fluorene-containing oligo(arylene)s : synthesis, crystal structures, optoelectronic properties and a theoretical study.

Hughes, G.; Wang, C.S.; Batsanov, A.S.; Fern, M.; Frank, S.; Bryce, M.R.; Perepichka, I.F.; Monkman, A.P.; Lyons, B.P.


G. Hughes

C.S. Wang

A.S. Batsanov

M. Fern

S. Frank

I.F. Perepichka

B.P. Lyons


New pyrimidine containing oligo(arylene)s, notably the pyrimidine-fluorene hybrid systems 13-16, have been synthesised by Suzuki cross-coupling methodology. An efficient synthesis of the key reagent 9,9-dihexylfluorene-2,7-diboronic acid 10 from 2,7-dibromo-9,9-dihexylfluorene 9 is reported. Cross-coupling of 10 with two equivalents of 2-bromopyrimidine, 5-bromopyrimidine and 2,5-dibromopyrimidine gave 2,7-bis(2-pyrimidyl)-9,9-dihexylfluorene 13, 2,7-bis(5-pyrimidyl)-9,9-dihexylfluorene 14 and 2,7-bis(5-bromo-2-pyrimidyl)-9,9-dihexylfluorene 15 in 23-34% yields. A further two-fold Suzuki reaction of benzeneboronic acid with compound 15 gave 2,7-bis(5-phenyl-2-pyrimidyl)-9,9-dihexylfluorene 16 (35% yield). Ab initio calculations of the geometries and electronic structures at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) levels of theory are reported for compounds 13, 14 and 16 ( with ethyl substituents replacing hexyl) and for their dipyrazinyl and bistetraazenyl analogues, 17, 18, 20 and 21. The heterocyclic nitrogen atoms of 13 and 16 facilitate planarisation of the system, compared to 14, which is in agreement with X-ray structural data obtained for 5-bromo-2-phenylpyrimidine 6, 2,5-diphenylpyrimidine 7 and compound 15. Bistetrazenyl derivative 21 is calculated to be a fully planar system. The cyclic voltammogram (CV) of compound 16 in dichloromethane solution shows a quasi-reversible oxidation wave at E-1/2(0) = +1.36 V (vs. Ag/Ag+). Compound 13 is a poorer donor with an oxidation observed at E-pa = +1.50 V which is in good agreement with the difference in the energies of their HOMO orbitals calculated at both HF and DFT levels of theory (0.11-0.12 eV). For compound 14 we were not able to measure an E-ox potential which should lie at much more positive potentials. Compounds 15 and 16 are blue emitters in solution, with photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQY) of 25% and 85%, respectively. For thin films of 16 the PLQY is reduced to 21%. An OLED using compound 16 as the emissive layer has been fabricated in the configuration ITO/PEDOT/16/Ca/Al: blue-green light (lambda(max) 500 nm) most likely emanating primarily from excimer states is emitted at a high turn-on voltage.


Hughes, G., Wang, C., Batsanov, A., Fern, M., Frank, S., Bryce, M., …Lyons, B. (2003). New pyrimidine- and fluorene-containing oligo(arylene)s : synthesis, crystal structures, optoelectronic properties and a theoretical study. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 2003(17), 3069-3077.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2003
Journal Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry
Print ISSN 1477-0520
Electronic ISSN 1477-0539
Publisher Royal Society of Chemistry
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 2003
Issue 17
Pages 3069-3077