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Hybrid Entrepreneurship: a Systematic Literature Review

Demir, C.; Werner, A.; Kraus, S.; Jones, P.

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C. Demir

A. Werner

S. Kraus

P. Jones


Hybrid entrepreneurship describes the engagement in self-employment activity while simultaneously holding a primary job in waged work. Because this phenomenon has received increasing scholarly attention in recent years, this study offers a first systematic literature review and uncovers both consensus and contradictions in the existing literature. Specifically, 43 papers were analyzed with respect to bibliographical information, research design and key results. We find that there is a missing consensus in applied nomenclatures, criteria and conception of hybrid entrepreneurship and a delineation of hybrid entrepreneurship from related concepts. As a result, alternative terminology is used to label the same phenomenon by different authors. Together, our study increases understanding of hybrid entrepreneurship by providing a holistic perspective of the phenomena and by offering avenues for future research.


Demir, C., Werner, A., Kraus, S., & Jones, P. (2022). Hybrid Entrepreneurship: a Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 34(1), 29-52.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 20, 2020
Online Publication Date Jul 30, 2020
Publication Date 2022
Deposit Date May 3, 2020
Publicly Available Date Jan 30, 2022
Journal Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship
Print ISSN 0827-6331
Electronic ISSN 2169-2610
Publisher Taylor and Francis Group
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 34
Issue 1
Pages 29-52
Public URL
Publisher URL https:/


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