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A Taxonomy of Game Elements for Gamification in Educational Contexts: Proposal and Evaluation

Toda, Armando; Oliveira, Wilk; Klock, Ana; Shi, Lei; Bittencourt, Ig Ibert; Gasparini, Isabela; Isotani, Seiji; Cristea, Alexandra I.; Palomino, Paula

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Armando Toda

Wilk Oliveira

Ana Klock

Lei Shi

Ig Ibert Bittencourt

Isabela Gasparini

Seiji Isotani

Paula Palomino


Gamification has been widely employed in the educational domain over the past eight years when the term became a trend. However, the literature states that gamification still lacks formal definitions to support the design of gamified strategies. This paper aims to create a taxonomy for the game elements, based on gamification experts' opinions. After a brief review from existing work, we extract first the game elements from the current state of the art, and then evaluate them via a survey with 19 gamification and education experts. The resulting taxonomy taxonomy included the description of 21 game elements and their quantitative and qualitative evaluation by the experts. Overall, the proposed taxonomy was in general well accepted by most of the experts. They also suggested expanding it with the inclusion of Narrative and Storytelling game elements. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is proposing a new, confirmed taxonomy to standardise the terminology used to define the game elements as a mean to design and deploy gamification strategies in the educational domain.


Toda, A., Oliveira, W., Klock, A., Shi, L., Bittencourt, I. I., Gasparini, I., …Palomino, P. (2019). A Taxonomy of Game Elements for Gamification in Educational Contexts: Proposal and Evaluation. .

Presentation Conference Type Conference Paper (Published)
Conference Name International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies and Technology-enhanced Learning
Start Date Jul 15, 2019
End Date Jul 18, 2019
Acceptance Date Mar 22, 2019
Online Publication Date Sep 2, 2019
Publication Date 2019-07
Deposit Date Jul 3, 2019
Publicly Available Date Nov 3, 2021
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Volume 2161
Pages 84-88
Public URL
Publisher URL


Accepted Conference Proceeding (244 Kb)

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