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Antibacterial mechanism of Malaysian Carey clay against food-borne Staphylococcus aureus

Azmi, Nur Naqiyah; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Wan Omar, Wan Hasyera; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ismail, Roslan; Ishak, Che Fauziah; Sharples, Gary J


Nur Naqiyah Azmi

Nor Ainy Mahyudin

Wan Hasyera Wan Omar

Abdul Halim Abdullah

Roslan Ismail

Che Fauziah Ishak


Depending on their chemical structure and geochemistry, clay minerals can display potent antibacterial properties against a range of bacterial pathogens. Malaysian Carey clay was evaluated for its antibacterial activity against food-borne ATCC 13565 strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal activity (MBC) of both Carey clay leachates and suspension were 125 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL, respectively. Time-kill assay revealed that 2x MIC and 4x MIC Carey clay in both leachate and suspension forms resulted in complete killing of . Antibacterial mechanism was investigated through imaging of bacterial morphology using TEM and determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using NBT assay. Imaging of bacterial morphology using TEM showed abnormalities, including disrupted cell walls following exposure to Carey clay, and the antibacterial activity was associated with generation of ROS. Our study suggests that Carey clay displays promising functionality as a natural antibacterial agent in the food industry.


Azmi, N. N., Mahyudin, N. A., Wan Omar, W. H., Abdullah, A. H., Ismail, R., Ishak, C. F., & Sharples, G. J. (2024). Antibacterial mechanism of Malaysian Carey clay against food-borne Staphylococcus aureus. Natural Product Research, 1-5.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 9, 2024
Online Publication Date May 20, 2024
Publication Date May 20, 2024
Deposit Date Jun 11, 2024
Journal Natural product research
Print ISSN 1478-6419
Publisher Taylor and Francis Group
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Pages 1-5
Keywords clay leachate, antibacterial mechanism, Antibacterial clay, clay suspension, Carey clay, bacterial cell membrane
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