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Fast variability of tera-electron volt gamma rays from the radio galaxy M87

Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.G.; Bazer-Bachi, A.R.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berge, D.; Bernlöhr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bolz, O.; Borrel, V.; Braun, I.; Brown, A.M.; Bühler, R.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Chadwick, P.M.; Chounet, L.-M.; Coignet, G.; Cornils, R.; Costamante, L.; Degrange, B.; Dickinson, H.J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Drury O'C. , L.; Dubus, G.; Egberts, K.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Espigat, P.; Feinstein, F.; Ferrero, E.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y.A.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Goret, P.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Hauser, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J.A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O.C.; Kendziorra, E.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khélifi, B.; Komin, N.; Konopelko, A.; Kosack, K.; Lamanna, G.; Latham, I.J.; Le Gallou, R.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.P.; Lohse, T.; Martin, J.M.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masterson, C.; Maurin, G.; Mc...


F. Aharonian

A.G. Akhperjanian

A.R. Bazer-Bachi

M. Beilicke

W. Benbow

D. Berge

K. Bernlöhr

C. Boisson

O. Bolz

V. Borrel

I. Braun

A.M. Brown

R. Bühler

I. Büsching

S. Carrigan

L.-M. Chounet

G. Coignet

R. Cornils

L. Costamante

B. Degrange

H.J. Dickinson

A. Djannati-Ataï

L. Drury O'C.

G. Dubus

K. Egberts

D. Emmanoulopoulos

P. Espigat

F. Feinstein

E. Ferrero

A. Fiasson

G. Fontaine

S. Funk

M. Füßling

Y.A. Gallant

B. Giebels

J.F. Glicenstein

P. Goret

C. Hadjichristidis

D. Hauser

M. Hauser

G. Heinzelmann

G. Henri

G. Hermann

J.A. Hinton

A. Hoffmann

W. Hofmann

M. Holleran

S. Hoppe

D. Horns

A. Jacholkowska

O.C. de Jager

E. Kendziorra

M. Kerschhaggl

B. Khélifi

N. Komin

A. Konopelko

K. Kosack

G. Lamanna

I.J. Latham

R. Le Gallou

A. Lemière

M. Lemoine-Goumard

J.P. Lenain

T. Lohse

J.M. Martin

O. Martineau-Huynh

A. Marcowith

C. Masterson

G. Maurin

T.J.L. McComb

E. Moulin

M. de Naurois

D. Nedbal

S.J. Nolan

A. Noutsos

K.J. Orford

M. Ouchrif

M. Panter

G. Pelletier

S. Pita

G. Pühlhofer

M. Punch

S. Ranchon

B.C. Raubenheimer

M. Raue

S.M. Rayner

A. Reimer

J. Ripken

L. Rob

L. Rolland

S. Rosier-Lees

G. Rowell

V. Sahakian

A. Santangelo

L. Saugé

S. Schlenker

R. Schlickeiser

R. Schröder

U. Schwanke

S. Schwarzburg

S. Schwemmer

A. Shalchi

H. Sol

D. Spangler

F. Spanier

R. Steenkamp

C. Stegmann

G. Superina

P.H. Tam

J.-P. Tavernet

R. Terrier

M. Tluczykont

C. van Eldik

G. Vasileiadis

C. Venter

J.P. Vialle

P. Vincent

H.J. Völk

S.J. Wagner


The detection of fast variations of the tera–electron volt (TeV) (1012 eV) -ray flux, on time scales of days, from the nearby radio galaxy M87 is reported. These variations are about 10 times as fast as those observed in any other wave band and imply a very compact emission region with a dimension similar to the Schwarzschild radius of the central black hole. We thus can exclude several other sites and processes of the -ray production. The observations confirm that TeV rays are emitted by extragalactic sources other than blazars, where jets are not relativistically beamed toward the observer.


Aharonian, F., Akhperjanian, A., Bazer-Bachi, A., Beilicke, M., Benbow, W., Berge, D., …Ward, M. (2006). Fast variability of tera-electron volt gamma rays from the radio galaxy M87. Science, 314(5804), 1424-1427.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Dec 1, 2006
Deposit Date Jul 16, 2007
Journal Science
Print ISSN 0036-8075
Electronic ISSN 1095-9203
Publisher American Association for the Advancement of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 314
Issue 5804
Pages 1424-1427
Keywords Black-hole, TEV emission, Cosmic-rays, Jet, HST-1, M-87, Nucleus, Knot.