The growth of Cu 2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) polycrystals from solid state reaction over a range of compositions, including the regions which produce the highest efficiency photovoltaic devices, is reported. X-ray measurements confirm the growth of crystalline CZTS. Temperature and intensity dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements show an increase in the energy of the main CZTS luminescence peak with both increasing laser power and increasing temperature. Analysis of the PL peak positions and intensity behavior demonstrates that the results are consistent with the model of fluctuating potentials. This confirms that the polycrystals are heavily doped with the presence of a large concentration of intrinsic defects. The behavior of the main luminescence feature is shown to be qualitatively similar over a broad range of compositions although the nature and amount of secondary phases vary significantly. The implications for thin-film photovoltaic devices are discussed.
Halliday, D., Claridge, R., Goodman, M., Mendis, B., Durose, K., & Major, J. (2013). Luminescence of Cu2ZnSnS4 polycrystals described by the fluctuating potential model. Journal of Applied Physics, 113(22), Article 223503. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4810846