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Differential empirical innovation factors for Spain and the UK

Harris, R.; Mate, M.

Differential empirical innovation factors for Spain and the UK Thumbnail


M. Mate


This study considers the role of national differences, derived from structural characteristics in each country, and how they impact on companies’ innovation. To do this we include in a firm-level empirical model of innovation traditional factors impacting on innovation, and measure any differences in these determinants between two countries: the UK (comprising more advanced regions) and Spain (which belongs to the “follower” groups of countries in Europe). Using the European Community Innovation Surveys (CIS4), we select two samples comprising private manufacturing firms and estimate a two-step Heckman model to explain firms’ innovation. Our results suggest that Spanish firms are at a different stage, with Spain lagging behind the UK in terms of being able to benefit from R&D. Thus in Spain, we find that public support is more important in promoting innovation activities; whereas linkages with international markets are more important for companies in the UK. Based on our results, we would argue that in order to reduce the technological gap between these two countries regional policies to promote innovation in Spain should concentrate more on the promotion of market relationships between co-located firms; while a greater exposure to internationalisation would benefit both countries.


Harris, R., & Mate, M. (2014). Differential empirical innovation factors for Spain and the UK. Research Policy, 43(2), 451-461.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 27, 2013
Online Publication Date Dec 8, 2013
Publication Date Mar 1, 2014
Deposit Date May 30, 2014
Publicly Available Date Jul 10, 2014
Journal Research Policy
Print ISSN 0048-7333
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 43
Issue 2
Pages 451-461
Keywords Innovation, Regional policies, Industrial companies, National innovation systems, Advanced and retarded regions.
Public URL


Accepted Journal Article (232 Kb)

Copyright Statement
NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Research policy. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Research policy, 43, 2, 2014, 10.1016/j.respol.2013.10.013

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